33611 - The findings and conclusions in this presentation...

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Unformatted text preview: The findings and conclusions in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC. Modifiable Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes 2009 Middle Eastern Region Epidemiology Supercourse Alexandria, Egypt Edward Gregg, PhD Epidemiology and Statistics Branch Division of Diabetes Translation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA Key Steps in the Public Health Research Leading to Public Health Decision Making Surveillance and Descriptive Epidemiology • Monitor health of the population • Identify public health problems and their magnitude • Evaluate levels of care • Identify high risk populations amenable to intervention Analytic and Clinical Epidemiology: • Identify modifiable risk factors • Examine effectiveness of interventions in the clinical setting aimed at the individual Health Services Research, Cost-Effectiveness, Translation Research • Examine the effectiveness of different health service, program, or policy-level interventions. • Examine the cost effectiveness of successful interventions Normal IGT Type 2 DM Disability Death Complications Primary Secondary Tertiary prevention prevention prevention Range of Potential Priorities in the Public Health Response to Diabetes Range of Potential Priorities in the Public Health Response to Diabetes Control of complications and management of disability. Prevention of diabetes complications Assure access to care Prevention of diabetes among persons of high risk. Prevention and management of risk factors in the whole population. Common Study Designs Used in Epidemiologic Research Observational Studies • Cross-sectional • Retrospective (case control) • Prospective (cohort studies) • Ecologic Studies Intervention Studies • Quasi-experimental studies • Controlled intervention studies o Clinical o Health Service o Community • Cost-effectiveness studies cross-sectional Retrospective cohort Intervention Yes No Risk factors: Characteristic of an individual or his/her environment that increases the chance of a health-related condition. Major Types: • Causal vs non-causal • Modifiable vs non modifiable • Behavioral • Physiologic • Environmental • Contextual How do we use risk factors? To contribute to understanding of etiology of disease. To guide the development of effective interventions. Bradford Hill Criteria for Evaluation of the Evidence of Causality Strength of Association Dose-response effect Temporality Consistency of evidence Biological plausibility Specificity of association Experimentation How do we use risk factors?...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course PHARM 300 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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33611 - The findings and conclusions in this presentation...

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