{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}


Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: TYPES OF STUDIES IN DIABETES EPIDEMIOLOGY : TYPES OF STUDIES BASED ON: : Purpose Time Cost Feasibility TYPES OF STUDY Observational ) ) Descriptive Analytical Cross-sectional - Retrospective - Prospective - Experimental A STUDY DESIGN FOR THE OUTCOMES OF DIABETES . Diabetes Morbidity (Complications) )) Mortality (Death) Economics Treatment TIME AND TYPES OF STUDY PAST Retrospective Cross-sectional PRESENT Prospective FUTURE Time CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY Cross-sectional PRESENT Time ANALYTICAL STUDY A cross-sectional study: Privides a snap shot Is simple Provides associated factor CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY What is different about: : DM Morbidity (Complications) )) Mortality (Death) How is it different about: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY Korea Japan Kuwait Israel England Canada Netheland Denmark Pittsburgh, USA Scotland Sweden Finland 0 Incidence /100,000 10 20 30 RETROSPECTIVE STUDY Determining differences in: : Life style Diet Reproductive on PRESENT Disease Medication PAST Family Hx Genetics Time RETROSPECTIVE STUDY: PROS & CONS PRO CON Suitable for rare diseases Inexpensive Minimal ethical problems Short study time Small # of subjects Subjects need not volunteer Susceptable to selection & memory bias Inconsistency: definitions of symptoms or diseases may have been modified over time. Can not determine incidence Limitations in data Relative risk approximation : : PROSPECTIVE STUDY Retinopathy+ + PRESENT DM Future Risk factors??? Retinopathy - Time PROSPECTIVE STUDY: PROS & CONS PRO Less variability to bias No recall necessary Incidence determined Relative risk accurate CON Consistent disease definitions & symptoms. Longer time Common disease only Expensive Ethical concern A high drop-out rate Volunteers needed A large # of subjects needed The Hawthorne-effect : TYPES OF STUDIES AND GOALS CROSS-SECTIONAL RETROSPECTIVE PROSPECTVE Understan d Estimate risk factors Validate risk factors Prevention-Control-Intervention-Education-Management - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Animal Drug trials Human Randomized Clinical Trial: DPP : EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Exercise Outcome evaluation Random Selection Diet Drug EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Cross-over design CASE Outcome evaluation CONTROL ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}