36831 - PhD Public Health Suez Canal University Egypt...

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Dr. Rasha Salama PhD Public Health, Suez Canal University, Egypt  Diabetes MSc, Cardiff University, United Kingdom 
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases  characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from  defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both.  The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder  of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic  hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and  protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin  secretion, insulin action, or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long–term damage,  dysfunction and failure of various organs.
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Diabetes mellitus may present with characteristic  symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and  weight loss.  In its most severe forms, ketoacidosis or a non–ketotic  hyperosmolar state may develop and lead to stupor, coma  and, in absence of effective treatment, death.  Often symptoms are not severe, or may be absent, and  consequently hyperglycaemia sufficient to cause  pathological and functional changes may be present for a  long time before the diagnosis is made.
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The long–term effects of diabetes mellitus include  progressive development of the specific complications  of retinopathy with potential blindness, nephropathy  that may lead to renal failure, and/or neuropathy with  risk of foot ulcers, amputation, Charcot joints, and  features of autonomic dysfunction, including sexual  dysfunction.  People with diabetes are at increased risk of  cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and  cerebrovascular disease.
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The development of diabetes is projected to reach  pandemic proportions over the next10-20 years.  International Diabetes Federation (IDF) data indicate that  by the year 2025, the number of people affected will reach  333 million –90% of these people will have Type 2  diabetes. In most Western societies, the overall prevalence has  reached 4-6%, and is as high as 10-12% among 60-70- year-old people. The annual health costs caused by diabetes and its  complications account for around 6-12% of all health-care  expenditure.
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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Gestational Diabetes Other types: LADA ( MODY ( maturity-onset diabetes of youth) Secondary Diabetes Mellitus
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Was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes.  Type 1 diabetes develops when the body’s immune system  destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body  that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose.  This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young 
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course PHARM 300 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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36831 - PhD Public Health Suez Canal University Egypt...

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