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Unformatted text preview: Ch 6 Motivation 1
Ch What is Motivation?
Motivation is defined as a set of
energetic forces that originates both within
and outside an employee,
related effort, and
direction, intensity, and persistence. Motivation is a critical consideration because job
performance is largely a function of two
motivation and ability.
1 Effects of Motivation on
Performance and Commitment
Performance 2 Theories of Motivation
Theories Process Theories
which internal factors
and cognitions influence
motivation Identify the
Identify Expectancy Theory Goal Setting Theory Equity Theory Psychological
Empowerment Content Theories Identify internal factors
Identify influencing motivation
influencing Maslow’s Need
Hygiene 3 Motivation and Effort
Motivation 4 Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Expectancy theory describes the
cognitive process that employees go through
to make choices among
voluntary 5 Expectancy Theory
Expectancy 6 Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
Expectancy Expectancy represents the belief that exerting a high
level of effort will result in the
performance of some task.
performance Expectancy is a subjective probability, ranging from 0
to 1 that a specific amount of effort will result in a
specific level of performance
(abbreviated E →
Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that a person has the
capabilities needed to execute the
for task success.
for Past accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal
emotional persuasion, Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
Expectancy Instrumentality represents the belief that
successful performance will result in some
outcome(s). Instrumentality is a set of
probabilities, each ranging
from 0 to 1 that
successful performance will bring a set of outcomes
(abbreviated P → O).
Valence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes
associated with performance
(abbreviated V). Can be positive, negative, or zero Extrinsic and Intrinsic Outcomes
EXTRINSIC OUTCOMES INTRINSIC OUTCOMES Pay Employment Bonuses Interestingness Promotions Accomplishment Benefits and perks Knowledge gain Spot awards Skill development Praise Personal expression Job security (Lack of) Boredom Support (Lack of) Anxiety Free time (Lack of) Frustration (Lack of) Disciplinary actions
(Lack of) Demotions
(Lack of) Terminations
9 Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
Expectancy Total “motivational force” to perform a given action
can be described using the following formula: Motivational Force = (E P) x Σ[(P O) x V] The Σ symbol in the equation signifies that
instrumentalities and valences are judged with various
outcomes in mind.
Motivational force equals zero if any one of the three
beliefs is zero.
beliefs OB on Screen
OB Boiler Room Think about which components of
expectancy theory the manager focuses on
expectancy Any given Sunday
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WO4tIrjBDkk Think about which components of
expectancy theory the coach focuses on
expectancy 11 Goal Setting Theory
Goal Goal setting theory views goals as the
primary drivers of the intensity and
persistence of effort.
persistence Assigning employees specific and difficult goals
will result in higher levels of performance.
will 12 Goal Setting Theory
Goal “Where there's a will there's a way” 13 Goal Difficulty and Task Performance
Goal 14 Goal Setting Theory, Cont’d
Goal Why do specific and difficult goals have such
positive Assignment of a specific and difficult goal shapes
people’s own self-set goals
self-set the internalized goals that people use to
their own task progress.
their monitor Goals trigger the creation of task strategies,
defined as learning plans and problems
defined solving approaches used to achieve successful
performance. 15 Goal Setting Theory, Cont’d
Goal Moderators on Task Performance
Feedback consists of updates on employee
progress toward goal attainment. Task complexity reflects how complicated the
information and actions involved in a task are, as
well as how much the task changes.
well Goal commitment is defined as the degree to
which a person accepts a goal and is determined
to try to reach it.
to 16 Strategies for Fostering
Goal Management By Objectives (MBO)
Management Applied version of goal setting that
Participation in decision-making Goal setting Feedback 18 “S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Specific (as opposed to vague)
ttainable Need to be realistic and challenging
Need to consider individuals’ skills, abilities, and goal
orientation (learning vs. performance)
orientation Results-based Consider quantity AND quality Goals should start with the word to followed by verbs such
as complete, acquire, produce, increase, and decrease rather
than develop, conduct, implement, or monitor
than Time-sensitive Specifies target date of completion
19 Goal Setting Practice
Goal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtgKUXMcHP www.uCree.com Please try to set your goals
Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly Lifetime 20 ...
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- Fall '08