LAB5 - James Johnson Ms. Fealy Bio 101 Lab #5 10/7/07 Lab...

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James Johnson Ms. Fealy Bio 101 Lab #5 10/7/07 Lab #5- Enzymes 1. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that catalyze most biochemical reactions. Catalysts are substances that speed up the chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzymes, who act like catalysts, speed up reactions without being consumed themselves. Reactions without enzymes catalyze at a rate a thousand times slower than reactions with enzymes. The conformation, or three- dimensional figure, of an enzyme has an affect on how fast or slow the catalyst affects the reaction. Some factors that also have an effect on the enzyme are temperature, pH, and inhibitors. Chemical and physical treatments that destabilize the enzyme’s and reduces/ eliminates their catalytic activities is a process called denaturation. To catalyze reactions chemical bonds are formed and broken within substrates, the reactant of the enzyme. An enzyme attaches to the substrate on an active site, which forms an enzyme- substrate complex. There are two types of “fits” that the enzyme can make with the substrate- the lock and key method and the induced fit method. The induced fit brings chemical groups to active sites, positioning them to enhance their ability to catalyze the reaction. The lock and key method provides a more specific fit for the substrates onto the enzyme- like a key in a door. In a chemical reaction, the bonds are broken/ formed at the transition state, an unstable, high- energy state. The initial energy state is called the activation energy, the amount of energy needed to push the reactants to the transition state. After the transition state, the products are formed. In a catalyzed
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reaction, the energy of activation is lowered, which allows more molecules to reach the transition state at a given point, therefore speeding up the reaction. On an energy diagram, an upward slope represents the energy of activation, the top of this slope is the transition state, and the downward slope is the formation of the products. The purpose of this lab is to describe the functions of an enzyme, explain the role of an active site in enzyme specificity, describe and understand the effect of concentration of enzyme and substrate, temperature, and pH on enzyme activity, and to identify the enzyme, substrate, and products in a reaction. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Muller during the Spring '08 term at Iona.

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LAB5 - James Johnson Ms. Fealy Bio 101 Lab #5 10/7/07 Lab...

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