The atmosphere/ocean system is a ‘heat engine’ largely driven bythe sun…that is, a contraption in which heated fluid (air or water) expands and, under gravity, becomes buoyant and rises. The ‘input and output’ temperatures differ by very roughly 300C and so the heat engine cannot convert more than about 10% of the heat flow to the Earth into mechanical energy of the circulation(10% is from the Carnotefficiency, (T1-T2)/T1 using 300K and 270K as the absolute temperaturesmeet: Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) 1753-1814http://www.rumford.com/Rumford.html
determining the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy (‘heat’) A cannon barrel is bored from solid iron by a pair of horses connected to an auger...(drill)…Rumford built a box around the barrel, filled it with water and kept track of the rising water temperature. This established he equivalence of thermal energy and a known about of mechanical energy (exerted at a rate of 2 horsepower!)
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Rumford Company - Baking Powder - 10 oz by Rumford CompanyBuy new: $2.39In Stock(3) Grocery: See all 4 itemsThe origin of the Rumford brand name is traced to Count Rumford (Benjamin “James” Thompson of Woburn, Massachusetts), a gifted inventor and scientist. Thompson, who is said to have bootlegged physics courses at Harvard when still a poor boy, became one of the discoverers of the Law of Conservation of Energy, and left the endowment for the Rumford Professorship in 1814. The Rumford Chair of the Application of Science to the Useful Arts was given to those who showed exceptional achievements in Science and Cooking. Professor Horsford, founder of the Rumford Company, once occupied the Rumford Chair at Harvard The Rumford brand logo depicts a cameo of Count Rumford in honorof his contributions to the fields of cooking and baking. “In what art or science other than cooking could improvements bemade that would more powerfully contribute to increase the comforts and enjoyments of mankind?”Rumford was a Royalist, unpopular in the American colonies, and at the Revolution fled to England and Germany, where he became the ‘Count’ choosing his New England town for his new title.