lec7-8-09-atmos-circ-sm

lec7-8-09-atmos-circ-sm - Lectures 7-8 Thurs 23.iv.09 HAS...

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Lectures 7-8 Thurs 23.iv.09 HAS 222d Introduction to energy & environment Atmosphere-ocean: circulation
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The atmosphere/ocean system is a ‘heat engine’ largely driven by the sun…that is, a contraption in which heated fluid (air or water) expands and, under gravity, becomes buoyant and rises. The ‘input and output’ temperatures differ by very roughly 30 0 C and so the heat engine cannot convert more than about 10% of the heat flow to the Earth into mechanical energy of the circulation (10% is from the Carnot efficiency, (T 1 -T 2 )/T 1 using 300K and 270K as the absolute temperatures meet: Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) 1753-1814 http://www.rumford.com/Rumford.html
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determining the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy (‘heat’) A cannon barrel is bored from solid iron by a pair of horses connected to an auger. ..(drill)…Rumford built a box around the barrel, filled it with water and kept track of the rising water temperature. This established he equivalence of thermal energy and a known about of mechanical energy (exerted at a rate of 2 horsepower!)
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Rumford Company - Baking Powder - 10 oz by Rumford Company Buy new : $2.39 In Stock ( 3 ) Grocery: See all 4 items The origin of the Rumford brand name is traced to Count Rumford (Benjamin “James” Thompson of Woburn, Massachusetts), a gifted inventor and scientist. Thompson, who is said to have bootlegged physics courses at Harvard when still a poor boy, became one of the discoverers of the Law of Conservation of Energy, and left the endowment for the Rumford Professorship in 1814. The Rumford Chair of the Application of Science to the Useful Arts was given to those who showed exceptional achievements in Science and Cooking. Professor Horsford, founder of the Rumford Company, once occupied the Rumford Chair at Harvard The Rumford brand logo depicts a cameo of Count Rumford in honor of his contributions to the fields of cooking and baking. “In what art or science other than cooking could improvements be made that would more powerfully contribute to increase the comforts and enjoyments of mankind?” Rumford was a Royalist, unpopular in the American colonies, and at the Revolution fled to England and Germany, where he became the ‘Count’ choosing his New England town for his new title.
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ATMOSPHERE AND OCEAN finely layered , like a parfait, by fluid density, the atmosphere’s temperature decreases upward at about 7 0 C per km…80% of the mass of the atmosphere is in the troposphere , the lowest 8 to 10 km. and the temperature decreases 50 to 70 0 C from sea level to that altitude The stratosphere above this level is more stratified, more stably layered. At the ground the pressure is about 10 5 Newton.m 2 or Pascals. This simply reflects the weight of the air overhead. In the
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course H A&S 222b taught by Professor P.b.rhines during the Spring '09 term at University of Washington.

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lec7-8-09-atmos-circ-sm - Lectures 7-8 Thurs 23.iv.09 HAS...

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