lec14-09-arctic-intro-sm06

lec14-09-arctic-intro-sm06 - HA&S 222d Spr 2009 Lecture 14...

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222d Spr 2009 Lecture 14 slides Arctic history and climate
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time Haug et al Nature 2006 Deep time showing the showing the cooling of the cooling of the Earth since the Earth since the end of the end of the Creaceous Creaceous period period (the dinosaur era). (the dinosaur era). There was little or no There was little or no snow or ice on Earth snow or ice on Earth then. Abruptly, about 2.5 then. Abruptly, about 2.5 million years ago, million years ago, the curve starts the curve starts oscillating wildly: oscillating wildly: the beginning of the the beginning of the ice ages ice ages
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Wikipedia: ice ages Vostok ice core, Antarctica. The ice ages currently are in a 100,000 year cycle. The Earth is almost always cooling down, interspersed with sudden warming events: ice ages end quickly. . . the ‘saw-tooth’ shape of temperature vs. time
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Faroe Islands (~Denmark) Shetland Islands (Scotland) Labrador Sea (see fig.19) the first migration:the Bering Straits .. and land bridge
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Arctic communities migrated from Asia roughly when the seas were low, during the last Ice Age: The glacial ice took up 120m off the top of the world’s oceans, opening up ‘land bridges’ The Bering Strait even today is narrow (Sarah Palin says she can see Russia from Alaska). The last ice age peaked 30,000 years ago and ‘rapidly’ retreated about 12,000 years ago. It is thought that then the migration path opened up, with migration as early as 16,000 years ago. Native settlements reached as far as Greenland from the west, in several occupations beginning at least 6000 years ago. Europeans came from the east: Vikings in 985, who settled successfully in Greenland for 400 years (Diamond’s book Collapse). whaling ships came to Baffin Bay, where whales gather in ice-free waters … kept open by the warm ocean flow from the south, and the north winds blowing ice southward. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bering_land_bridge
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Earth’s topography, both on land and the seafloor (red, brown=high; light blue=shallow ocean, deep blue = deep ocean). Note Greenland with its 3000m high ice cap denoted in orange. Also note the huge shallow ocean regions in the Arctic and Bering Strait.
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Europeans long sought after the Northwest Passage, a northern sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Martin Frobisher, in 1560 began this quest. . In 1576 Frobisher managed to convince the Muscovy Company , an English merchant consortium which had previously sent out several parties searching for the Northeast Passage, to license his expedition Finally in 1905 Roald Amundsen successfully found his way through. Continuing to the south of Victoria Island , the ship cleared the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on August 17, 1905, source: Wikipedia
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R/V Knorr in Labrador Sea. At the time (Aug 1981) of this research cruise, the fir
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course H A&S 222b taught by Professor P.b.rhines during the Spring '09 term at University of Washington.

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lec14-09-arctic-intro-sm06 - HA&S 222d Spr 2009 Lecture 14...

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