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bioex_lect31 - Glucose(C 6 H 12 O 6 Thermodynamically...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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Rate Laws See lecture 31 for a discussion of kinetics versus thermodynamics. When considering a chemical reaction, one must ask whether the reaction will go (thermodynamics), and how fast the reaction will go (kinetics). Example from pg. 1 of Lecture 31 notes: Kinetics of glucose oxidation (energy production) in the body The oxidation of glucose provides energy for the body, which is stored in the form of ATP. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ! 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Consider the Thermodynamics for the Oxidation of Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O H OH G° = H° - T H 2 C H C O HO C H° = -2816 kJ/mol HO C H C C H OH T S° or S° is (+) H HO G° = -2,885 kJ/mol
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Unformatted text preview: Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Thermodynamically favorable. With such a thermodynamically favorable process, why doesn’t candy explode into CO 2 and H 2 O when exposed to air (see class activity)? KINETICS. Glucose oxidation is slow. The body uses protein catalysts called enzymes to speed up the reactions. Example from Lecture 31 lecture: Diamonds are forever (kinetically speaking) Image courtesy of sirtrentalot on flickr. Consider the thermodynamics of the conversion of diamonds to graphite: For 12.01 g (1 mol) of carbon, C (graphite) is 2,900 J more stable than C (diamond) . This means that graphite formation is thermodynamically favorable and spontaneous! However, there is a HUGE activation barrier for conversion, so diamonds are kinetically inert....
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