a201-11f-13-OurRelativesCatarrhines - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 13 An introduction to our relatives: Catarrhines Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 - Continuing our survey of the Order primates - Suborder: haplorrhini - Infraorder: simiformes - Two parvorders: platyrrhini (platyrrhines, or New World monkeys) and catarrhini (catarrhines) - Parvorder: catarrhini (catarrhines) - narrow, downward-facing nostrils - our branch - only in the Old World (except humans) - two premolars on top and bottom, rather than three - some have tails, but none are prehensile - more variable adaptations than New World monkeys (platyrrhines) - two superfamilies: Cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) and Hominoids (apes and humans) - Superfamily: Cercopithecoids - Old World monkeys (OWMs) - highly variable group - arboreal and/or terrestrial - many different kinds of social organizations and mating strategies - often groups of numerous females and one or several males - but basically monkeys, similar in many ways to platyrrhines (NWMs) - OWMs and NWMs tend to be arboreal - almost all quadrupedal, with variations - almost all diurnal - generally live in social groups - this is a good example of parallel (or maybe convergent) evolution - common ancestor split on two isolated land masses - similar environments led to similar characteristics evolving from the same starting point - Jurmain et al. use the term “homoplasy” for this similarity - Two subfamilies: Colobines and Cercopithecines - Subfamily: Colobines - most arboreal leaf-eaters - Africa and Asia - langurs: sometimes called "leaf monkeys" - colobus monkeys: no thumbs (apparently an adaptation to moving through trees?) - "Miss Waldron's Red Colobus": last seen in 1970's, declared extinct in September 2000 - Subfamily: Cercopithecines - many are semi-terrestrial
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a201-11f-13-OurRelativesCatarrhines - Introduction to...

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