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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Class 25 Religion, ritual, and creating and maintaining belief Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 - Kottak on religion - Table just to give you an idea of the variety and size of major religions - you dont have to memorize the details - Revitalization movement : - also called millenary movemen t or millenial movement- social and religious movement that - occurs at times of crisis, decline, or oppression - intends to change or revitalize society - or predicts a cosmic change, like the end of the world or the return of a prophet - sometimes back to a remembered better past - sometimes to something new and better - like the second coming of Christ, end times, etc. - typically led by a charismatic prophet, teacher, etc. - examples: - Handsome Lake religion - Iroquois (Native Americans of Upstate New York) - started around 1800, led by Handsome Lake - in response to - mistreatment by US after aiding the British - resettlement onto reservations - alcoholism problems - promoted adoption of European ways of farming and residence - ending matrilineal organization and inheritance of land - shifting from communal longhouses to individual, patrilineal nuclear families - Ghost Dance movement - many Native American tribes - started in 1889 by a Paiute visionary named Wovoka - believed that if enough people participated in the Ghost Dance, the ancestors would return and the Native Americans would be restored to their place in the old world - most famously adopted by the Lakota Sioux, leading to the massacre at Wounded Knee - Some religions that are well-established now may have started as revitalization or millennial movements - Christianity (arguably) - Protestant Christianity, starting with Martin Luther - Church of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) (arguably) - Cargo cult : especially in Melanesia and Polynesia - General features: - Appeared after abrupt contact with modern soldiers, explorers, miners, missionaries, colonial government officials, etc. Intro to Cultural Anthro F 2011 / Owen: Religion, ritual, creating and maintaining belief p. 2 - who had lots of goods (cargo) but did not apparently have to work to get them - and did many strange, useless things - marching in formation - saluting flags - using radios - various prophets interpreted these odd behaviors as magic that got their ancestors to provide the cargo - they would convince others to join them in trying to duplicate the magic - marching, saluting, talking into radios, etc. - hoping that this would cause the ancestors to bring great amounts of wealth (cargo) - and drive off the lazy, greedy foreigners who were exploiting them - this was magical technology to bring about a specific end - numerous different cargo cults, each led by a charismatic leader proposing some different magical practice - sometimes the same person who led a previous attempt that didnt work - often drew followers from distant regions - often including people who had tried other cargo cults and given up when they didnt...
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