08_109_MidtermII_Questions - P HYSICS 1090: MIDTERM II...

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PHYSICS 1090: MIDTERM II PROBLEM FILE The Midterm will be eight of these. It will be pledged: you must not use any source of information during the exam. You will not need calculators, as you can see. When asked for approximate times, the right century is enough. Numbers labeled * could change! 1. When did Copernicus live, approximately? What was his main contribution to science? What reasons did he give for introducing a new model? Why did Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons make Copernicus’s picture more plausible? 2. How did Galileo estimate the height of mountains on the Moon? Draw a diagram and explain. Approximately, how high were they? How could the Moon still look so round? 3. What physical justification was there for Aristotle’s belief that things fell at a uniform speed? What everyday experience did Galileo invoke to suggest that in fact everyone knew better? Galileo also argued against Aristotle’s assertion that something twice as heavy would fall twice as fast by asking how fast a heavy ball tied to a light ball would fall. (See Two New Sciences, second selection.) Recount the argument. 4. Reconstruct Galileo’s argument that a ball rolling down a ramp would pick up the same speed in losing a given vertical height as a ball simply falling. Explain how timing the ball’s motion for certain distances led him to believe it accelerated at a uniform rate. 5.
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08_109_MidtermII_Questions - P HYSICS 1090: MIDTERM II...

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