12 - Chemistry 1000 Lecture 12: The alkali metals and ionic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 1000 Lecture 12: The alkali metals and ionic compounds Marc R. Roussel Production of sodium and lithium metals I Because they are such good reducing agents, the alkali metals are present in nature only as ionic compounds. I Lithium and sodium metal are produced by electrolysis of the molten chlorides. Overall reactions: LiCl (l) → Li (l) + 1 2 Cl 2(g) NaCl (l) → Na (l) + 1 2 Cl 2(g) Downs cell screen (l) cathode anode iron Na Molten mixture NaCl/CaCl 2 Cl 2(g)- + I Melting point of NaCl: 804 ◦ C Melting point of 1:4 mixture of NaCl:CaCl 2 : ∼ 600 ◦ C I Cathode reaction: Na + + e- → Na (l) E ◦ =- 2 . 713 V I Anode reaction: Cl- → 1 2 Cl 2(g) + e- E ◦ =- 1 . 358 V I Overall: Na + + Cl- → Na (l) + 1 2 Cl 2 E ◦ =- 4 . 071 V I Calcium is not produced in appreciable quantities because calcium ions are harder to reduce than sodium ions: E ◦ =- 2 . 84 V for Ca 2+ . Electrolysis of aqueous NaCl I Hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of NaCl involves the following half-reactions: 2Cl- (aq) → Cl 2(g) + 2e- E ◦ =- 1 . 358 V 2H 2 O (l) + 2e- → H 2(g) + 2OH- (aq) E ◦ =- . 828 V I Overall: 2Cl- + 2H 2 O (l) → Cl 2(g) + H 2(g) + 2OH- (aq) E ◦ =- 2 . 186 V I We are left with a solution of NaOH (aq) ....
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2012 for the course CHEM 1000 taught by Professor Marc during the Fall '06 term at Lethbridge College.

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12 - Chemistry 1000 Lecture 12: The alkali metals and ionic...

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