16 - Chemistry 1000 Lecture 16 Lewis structures Marc R...

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Chemistry 1000 Lecture 16: Lewis structures Marc R. Roussel
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Covalent bonding Definition: a chemical bond in which electrons are shared between two atoms Contrast: Ionic bonding: material held together by electrostatic force (no sharing of electrons) Metallic bonding: electrons shared among all the metal atoms I Typically formed between two non-metallic elements
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Lewis diagrams I A convenient graphical accounting system for valence electrons in molecules I A shared electron pair is represented by a line between the two atoms. Bond order: number of shared electron pairs in a bond I A nonbonding valence electron is represented by a dot. I Dots are paired to represent their occupation of orbitals. Lone pair: a pair of nonbonding electrons in an “orbital” Example: O H H : ..
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The octet rule Typically, main-group elements in chemical compounds (except H) are surrounded by eight valence electrons (including any shared in covalent bonds). H can only have/share two electrons. Some elements, notably B, sometimes form electron deficient compounds in which there is less than a full octet around the atom, with important implications for their chemistry.
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16 - Chemistry 1000 Lecture 16 Lewis structures Marc R...

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