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01 - Chemistry 2000 Lecture 1 Introductory comments on...

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Chemistry 2000 Lecture 1: Introductory comments on bonding theory Marc R. Roussel
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Ionic bonding I Purely ionic bonding can be understood using classical mechanics. Are any bonds purely ionic? I Recall: dipole moment for a diatomic molecule μ = qR where q is the charge separation and R is the bond length. I Given the bond length (measurable by rotational spectroscopy), we can calculate a theoretical dipole moment assuming pure ionic bonding. In this case, q = Ze , where Z is the charge of the cation (anion charge = - Ze ).
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Ionic bonding (continued) I The experimental dipole moment is also measurable by rotational spectroscopy because the response of the rotational spectrum to an electric field depends on the dipole moment (Stark effect). I For a purely ionic compound, the experimental and calculated dipole moments would match up exactly. If we have less than 100% charge transfer (i.e. a covalent contribution), then q will be smaller than Ze .
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