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final-1 - Chemistry 2000 Spring 2002 Final Examination Time...

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Chemistry 2000 Spring 2002 Final Examination Time: 3 hours Marks: 100 Aids allowed: Calculator. No printed materials (e.g. periodic tables, calculator manuals) are al- lowed. Formulas and data are given on page 4. Instructions: Answer all questions in the booklets provided. Graphs should be drawn on the graph paper provided and inserted into your exam booklet prior to submission. Make sure to write your name, student number and the question number in the appropriate spaces on the graph paper. Only graphs may be submitted on separate pages. All other answers must be written in the exam booklets. In sections 2 and 3, you have a choice of questions. Do not answer more than the required number of questions. Extra answers will not be marked. Clarity may be considered in evaluating your answers. If you are asked a direct question, give a direct answer. If you use advanced features of your calculator to carry out a nontrivial computation (e.g. solving a quadratic equation), say so. If you determined something from a graph, refer to the graph in explaining your answer. 1 Answer all questions in this section. Value of this section: 70 1. There are at least three ways to determine by calculation whether or not a reaction is sponta- neous. Name two. [2 marks] 2. In Eastern North America, acid rain due to industrial pollution is still a serious problem. Rain with a p H of 4.3 is still common in some areas despite significant improvements in recent years. What are the hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution with a
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