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1A2PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 2 What Id be doing if I were...

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1A2PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 2 What Id be doing if I were...

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Chemistry 1A Chapter 2
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What I’d be doing if I were you… Support for this presentation Read pdf file for Chapter 2 of An Introduction to Chemistry (link on the Chemistry 1A webpage) http://www.preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_2_eBook.pdf Read pdf file for Chapter 8 of An Introduction to Chemistry (link on the Chemistry 1A webpage) http://www.preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_8_eBook.pdf Or read Chapters 1 and 2 in the text.
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Group Numbers on the Periodic Table
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Group Names Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens Noble Gases
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Characteristics of Metallic Elements Metals have a shiny metallic luster. Metals conduct heat well and conduct electric currents in the solid form. Metals are malleable. For example, gold, Au, can be hammered into very thin sheets without breaking.
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Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
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Classification of Elements
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Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Elements
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Atoms • Tiny…about 10 -10 m If the atoms in your body were 1 in. in diameter, you’d bump your head on the moon. • Huge number of atoms in even a small sample of an element 1/2 carat diamond has 5 × 10 21 atoms…if lined up, would stretch to the sun.
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Particles in the Atom • Neutron (n) 0 charge 1.00867 u in nucleus • Proton (p) +1 charge 1.00728 u in nucleus • Electron (e ) 1 charge 0.000549 u outside nucleus
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Electron Cloud for Hydrogen Atom
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The Electron “If I seem unusually clear to you, you must have misunderstood what I said.” Alan Greenspan, Head of the Federal Reserve Board “It is probably as meaningless to discuss how much room an electron takes up as to discuss how much room a fear, an anxiety, or an uncertainty takes up.” Sir James Hopwood Jeans, English mathematician, physicist and astronomer (1877-1946)
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Wave Diffraction Patterns
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Effect on Chemical Changes • Electrons Can be gained, lost, or shared…actively participate in chemical changes Affect other atoms through their -1 charge • Protons Affect other atoms through their +1 charge Determine the number of electrons in uncharged atoms • Neutrons No charge…no effect outside the atom and no direct effect on the number of electrons.
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Carbon Atom
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Example Ions
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Ions Ions are charged particles due to a loss or gain of electrons. When particles lose one or more electrons, leaving them with a positive overall charge, they become cations . When particles gain one or more electrons, leaving them with a negative overall charge, they become anions .
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Isotopes of Hydrogen
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Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons and electrons in the uncharged atom but different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different masses.
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Tin has ten natural isotopes.
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Possible Discovery of Elements 113 and 115 Dubna, Russia Dubna’s Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Bombarded a target enriched in americium, 243 Am, with calcium atoms, 48 Ca.
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