1A3PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 3 Covalent Bond Formation...

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Chemistry 1A Chapter 3
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Covalent Bond Formation
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Covalent Bond A link between atoms due to the sharing of two electrons. This bond forms between atoms of two nonmetallic elements. If the electrons are shared equally, there is a even distribution of the negative charge for the electrons in the bond, so there is no partial charges on the atoms. The bond is called a nonpolar covalent bond . If one atom in the bond attracts electrons more than the other atom, the electron negative charge shifts to that atom giving it a partial negative charge. The other atom loses negative charge giving it a partial positive charge. The bond is called a polar covalent bond .
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Polar Covalent Bond
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Ionic Bond The attraction between cation and anion. Atoms of nonmetallic elements often attract electrons so much more strongly than atoms of metallic elements that one or more electrons are transferred from the metallic atom (forming a positively charged particle or cation ), to the nonmetallic atom (forming a negatively charged particle or anion ). For example, an uncharged chlorine atom can pull one electron from an uncharged sodium atom, yielding Cl and Na + .
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Ionic Bond Formation
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Sodium Chloride, NaCl, Structure
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Electronegativities
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Electronegativity, a measure of the electron attracting ability of atoms in chemical bonds is used to predict… whether a chemical bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic. which atom in a polar covalent bond is partial negative and which is partial positive. which atom in an ionic bond forms the cation and which forms the anion. which of two covalent bonds are more polar.
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Bond Types
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Which atom in a polar covalent bond is partially negative and which is partially positive? higher electronegativity partial negative charge lower electronegativity partial positive charge
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Which of two bonds is more polar? The greater the Δ EN is, the more polar the bond.
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Types of Compounds All nonmetallic atoms usually leads to all covalent bonds, which from molecules. These compounds are called molecular compounds . Metal-nonmetal combinations usually lead to ionic bonds and ionic compounds .
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Classification of Compounds
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Summary Nonmetal-nonmetal combinations (e.g. HCl) Covalent bonds Molecules Molecular Compound Metal-nonmetal combinations (e.g. NaCl) Probably ionic bonds Alternating cations and anions in crystal structure Ionic compound
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Valence Electrons The valence electrons for each atom are the most important electrons in the formation of chemical bonds. The number of valence electrons for the atoms of each element is equal to the element’s A-group number on the periodic table. Covalent bonds often form to pair unpaired electrons and give the atoms of the elements other than hydrogen and boron eight valence electrons (an octet of valence electrons).
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Valence Electrons and A-Group Numbers
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Electron-Dot Symbols and Lewis Structures Electron-dot symbols show valence electrons.
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2012 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Mark during the Fall '06 term at Monterey Peninsula College.

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1A3PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 3 Covalent Bond Formation...

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