1A6PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 6 Some Chemical Changes...

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Chemistry 1A Chapter 6
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Some Chemical Changes Release Energy Combustion of Methane CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (l) +
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Some Chemical Changes Absorb Energy
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Energy Terms Energy = the capacity to do work Work , in this context, may be defined as what is done to move an object against some sort of resistance.
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Two Types of Energy Kinetic Energy = the energy of motion = 1/2 m μ 2 Potential Energy = energy by virtue of position or state
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Law of Conservation of Energy
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Endergonic Change more stable + energy less stable system lesser capacity + energy greater capacity to do work to do work lower PE + energy higher PE coin in hand + energy coin in air above hand
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Coin and Potential Energy
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Bond Breaking and Potential Energy
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Exergonic Change less stable system more stable + energy greater capacity lesser capacity + energy to do work to do work higher PE lower PE + energy coin in air above hand coin on ground + energy
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Bond Making and Potential Energy
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Which higher energy? Is it kinetic or potential? 428 m/s Ar atoms or 456 m/s Ar atoms? 428 m/s Ar atoms or 428 m/s Kr atoms? Na + close to Cl or Na + and Cl far apart? ROOR or 2 RO H (g) and O 2 (g) or HO 2 (g) Solid CO 2 or gaseous CO 2
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Units of Energy Joule (J) = 4.184 J = 1 cal 4.184 kJ = 1 kcal 4184 J = 1 Cal (dietary calorie) 4.184 kJ = 1 Cal 2 2 kg m s
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Approximate Energy of Various Events
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More Terms External Kinetic Energy = Kinetic energy associated with the overall movement of a body Internal Kinetic Energy = Kinetic energy associated with the random motion of the particles within a body
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External and Internal Kinetic Energy
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Heat Heat = Energy transfer from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature due to collisions of particles.
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eat Transfer
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Radiant Energy Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that behaves like a stream of particles. It has a dual Nature Particle photons = tiny packets of radiant energy 10 17 photons/second from a flashlight bulb Wave oscillating electric and magnetic fields describes effect on space, not true nature of radiant energy
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A Light Wave’s Electric and Magnetic Fields
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Radiant Energy Spectrum
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Endergonic Change more stable + energy less stable system lesser capacity + energy greater capacity to do work to do work lower PE + energy higher PE
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Exergonic Change less stable system more stable + energy greater capacity lesser capacity + energy to do work to do work higher PE lower PE + energy
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Bond Breaking and Potential Energy
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Bond Making and Potential Energy
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Exergonic (Exothermic) Reaction weaker bonds stronger bonds + energy less stable more stable + energy higher PE lower PE + energy
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Exothermic Reaction
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Endothermic Reaction stronger bonds + energy weaker bonds more stable + energy less stable lower PE + energy higher PE NH 4 NO 3 ( s ) + energy NH 4 + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq )
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Energy and Chemical Reactions
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Factors that Affect Heats
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1A6PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 6 Some Chemical Changes...

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