1A7PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 7 Atomic Theory To see a...

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Chemistry 1A Chapter 7
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Atomic Theory To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour William Blake Auguries of Innocence Thus, the task is not so much to see what no one has yet seen, but to think what nobody has yet thought, about that which everybody sees. Erwin Schrodinger
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Ways to deal with Complexity and Uncertainty Analogies In order to communicate something of the nature of the electron, scientists often use analogies. For example, in some ways, electrons are like vibrating guitar strings. Probabilities In order to accommodate the uncertainty of the electron’s position and motion, we refer to where the electron probably is within the atom instead of where it definitely is.
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Electron like Light Dual Nature Particle Massless photons of varying energy for light. Negatively charged particles with a mass of 9.1096 × 10 28 g for the electron. Wave – related to the effect on the space around them Oscillating electric and magnetic fields for light. 3-D Wave of varying negative charge for electron.
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Guitar String Waveform
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Allowed Vibrations for a Guitar String
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Determination of the Allowed Guitar String Waveforms Set up the general form of the wave equation that describes the vibrating string. Determine the forms of the general equation that fit the boundary conditions. Each possible equation is solved over and over again for the amplitude at many different positions. We plot the values determined in Step 3 and get an image of the possible wave forms. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated for other equations that meet the boundary conditions.
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Equation for Guitar String A X = the amplitude at position x A O = the maximum amplitude at any point on the string n = 1, 2, 3, . .. x = the position along the string a = the total length of the string XO nx A = s i n a π
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Guitar String Amplitudes A 1 A 0 A 2
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Guitar String Waveform 1 XO x A = A sin a π
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Guitar String Waveform 2 XO 2x A = s i n a π
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Guitar String Waveform 3 XO 3x A = s i n a π
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Determination of the Allowed Electron Waveforms Set up the general form of the wave equation that describes the electron in a hydrogen atom. Ψ x,y,z = f(x,y,z) Determine the forms of the general equation that fit the boundary conditions. Each equation has its own set of three quantum numbers: n, l, and m l . Ψ 1s = f 1s (x,y,z) with 1,0,0 for quantum numbers Ψ 2s = f 2s (x,y,z) with 2,0,0 for quantum numbers Ψ 2p = f 2p (x,y,z) with 2,1,1 or 2,1,0 or 2,1, 1 for quantum numbers Etc.
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Determination of the Allowed Electron Waveforms (cont.) Each allowed equation is solved to get the values for the wave function for many different positions. When we plot the solutions for one of the possible wave functions on a three-dimensional coordinate system, we get an image of one of the possible waveforms.
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Waveform for 1s Electron (with quantum numbers 1,0,0)
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Other Allowed Waveforms
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1s Orbital
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Particle Interpretation of 1s Orbital
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Wave Character of the
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2012 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Mark during the Fall '06 term at Monterey Peninsula College.

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1A7PPT - Chemistry 1A Chapter 7 Atomic Theory To see a...

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