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2008_Summer_Chem2_Ex1_key - Chemistry 2 Exam 1 Key Chapters...

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1 Chemistry 2 Exam 1 Key Chapters 1-5 and part 6 Summer 2008 Answer the following by writing the word, words, letter, letters or number in each blank that best completes each sentence. (3/4 point each) 1. A(n) element is a substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances. It is a substance in which all of the atoms have the same number of protons and therefore the same chemical characteristics. 2. Malleable means capable of being extended or shaped by the blows of a hammer. 3. The transition metals are the elements in groups 3 through 12 (the “B” groups) on the periodic table. 4. A(n) cation is an ion formed from an atom that has lost one or more electrons and thus has become positively charged. 5. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. 6. Kinetic energy is the capacity to do work due to the motion of an object. 7. Potential energy is retrievable, stored form of energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or state. 8. A(n) exergonic (exogonic) change releases energy. 9. Joule (J) is the accepted international unit for energy. 10. Heat is the energy transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature due to collisions between particles. 11. Atomic orbitals are the allowed waveforms for the electron. This term can also be defined as a volume that contains a high percentage of the electron charge or as a volume within which an electron has a high probability of being found. 12. A(n) excited state is the condition of an atom that has at least one of its electrons in orbitals that do not represent the lowest possible potential energy.
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2 13. A(n) polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally , leading to a partial negative charge on the atom that attracts the electrons more and to a partial positive charge on the other atom. 14. Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. 15. Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures. 16. Atomic mass is the weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. 17. A(n) mole is the amount of substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. Answer the following by writing one of these words or phrases in each blank. (1/2 point each) 0.1% impossible resistance 70% increases shorter 99.9% K smaller Celsius Kelvin spherical change larger spins covalent lone pairs sun definitions lose temperature distance mass ten times eight naturally triple energy negative charge two exactly neutrons usually ionic gain particle wave greater potential weighted average hydrogen protons
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3 18. The kelvin, which has an abbreviation of K , is the accepted SI standard (and base unit) for temperature .
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