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Bishop_2_1A_eBook - CHAPTER 2 Atoms and Elements Objectives...

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C HAPTER 2 Atoms and Elements 7 Objectives You will be able to do the following: 1. Given a periodic table, determine the group number for the column in which the element is found. This includes the 1-18 numbering and the common variations. For example, the second column can be numbered 2 or 2A. 2. Given a periodic table, determine the names associated with groups 1 (alkali metals), 2 (alkaline earth metals), 17 (halogens), and 18 (noble gases). 3. Write or identify the characteristics of metals. 4. Given a periodic table, determine whether an element is a metal, nonmetal, or a metalloid (semimetal). 5. Given a periodic table, determine whether an element is a representative (or main-group) element, a transition metal, or an inner transition metal. 6. Given a periodic table, write or identify the number for the period on the table to which each element belongs. 7. Given the name or symbol for an element, identify whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature. 8. Write or identify the symbols, charges, and relative sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 9. Write a description of the nuclear model of the atom. Your description should include mention of where the proton, neutron, and electron are found, the relative size of the nucleus compared to the size of the atom, and the modern description of the electron. 10. Write a description of the carbon atom, including a rough sketch representing its electrons. 11. Write an explanation for why electrons affect the chemical characteristics of an atom. 12. Write an explanation for why protons affect the chemical characteristics of an atom. 13. Write an explanation for why neutrons do not affect the chemical characteristics of an atom. 14. Write an explanation for why atoms of the same element can have a different number of neutrons. 15. Convert between the atomic number and the number of protons in an atom of an isotope. 16. Given an isotope’s mass number, atomic number, and charge, write its symbol. 17. Given an isotope’s symbol, determine its mass number, atomic number, and charge. 18. Given the number of protons and neutrons in an atom of an isotope, determine its mass number. 19. Given the mass number and the atomic number of an isotope, determine the number of neutrons in an atom of the isotope.
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8 Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 20. Given two of the following three, determine the third: (1) the number of protons in an atom, (2) the number of electrons in an atom, and (3) the charge on the atom. 21. Write or identify the diatomic elements (H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , and I 2 ). 22. Write a description of the hydrogen molecule. 23. Write a general description of the structure of the following: the noble gases, hydrogen gas, nitrogen gas, oxygen gas, fluorine gas, chlorine gas, bromine liquid, and iodine solid. 24. Write a brief description of the “sea of electrons” model for metallic bonding.
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