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Bishop_3_1A_eBook - CHAPTER 3 Chemical Compounds Objectives...

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C HAPTER 3 Chemical Compounds 31 Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Given a description of a form of matter, classify as an element, compound, or mixture. 2. Write a description of the polar covalent bond between the hydrogen atom and the chlorine atom in HCl. Your description should include a rough sketch of the electron cloud that represents the electrons involved in the bond. 3. Write a description of the process that leads to the formation of the ionic bond between sodium and chlorine atoms in sodium chloride. 4. Write a description of the sodium chloride crystal structure. 5. Write a description of the difference between a nonpolar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond. Your description should include rough sketches of the electron clouds that represent the electrons involved in the formation of the each bond. 6. Given the names or formulas for two elements, identify the bond that would form between them as covalent or ionic. 7. Given a table of electronegativities, do the following. (See pages 354-357 of the text.) a. Classify chemical bonds as nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic. b. Identify which of two atoms in a polar covalent bond has a partial negative charge and which atom has a partial positive charge. c. Identify which of two atoms in an ionic bond has a negative charge and which atom has a positive charge. d. Given two bonds, determine which of the bonds would be expected to be more polar. 8. Identify the most common number of covalent bonds that each of the following elements form: hydrogen, Group 17 (halogens), oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. 9. Convert between the description of the number of atoms of each element found in a compound and its chemical formula. 10. Draw Lewis structures from chemical formulas for compounds that have all of their atoms with their most common bonding pattern. 11. Describe the molecular geometry of CH 4 , NH 3 , and H 2 O molecules. 12. Write a description of the attractions between water molecules in liquid and solid water. 13. Write a description of the structure of liquid water. Your description should include a sketch of the particles in the liquid. 14. Convert between the names and chemical formulas for water, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane. 15. Write or identify prefixes for the numbers 1-10. (For example, mono- represents one, di- represents two, etc.)
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32 Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds 16. Write or identify the roots of the nonmetals. (For example, the root for oxygen is ox .) 17. Convert between the systematic names and chemical formulas for binary covalent compounds. 18. Convert between the complete name, the common name, and the chemical formula for HF, HCl, HBr, HI, and H 2 S. 19. Write or identify the ionic charges that form for the following elements: group 17 (halogens), oxygen, sulfur, selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrogen, group 1 (alkali metals), group 2 (alkaline earth metals), group 3 elements, aluminum, iron, silver, copper, and zinc.
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