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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 6 Energy and Chemical Reactions 105 Objectives You will be able to: 1. Write or identify a description of the Law of Conservation of Energy. 2. Describe the relationship between stability and potential energy. 3. Explain why energy must be absorbed to break a chemical bond. 4. Explain why energy is released when a chemical bond is formed. 5. Identify the joule as the accepted international unit for energy. 6. Convert between the names and abbreviations for joule, J, calorie, cal, and dietary calorie (Calorie), Cal. 7. Write or identify the relative sizes of the joule, calorie, and dietary calorie (Calorie). 8. Write or identify what is meant in terms of average internal kinetic energy when we say that one object has a higher temperature than another object. 9. Describe the changes that take place during heat transfer between objects at a diFerent temperature. 10. Write or identify the relationship between the wavelength of radiant energy and the energy of its photons. 11. Write or identify the relative energies and wavelengths of the following forms of radiant energy: gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet (UV), visible, infrared (IR), microwaves, and radio waves. 12. Write or identify the relative energies and wavelengths of the following colors of visible light: violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. 13. Explain why some chemical reactions release heat to their surroundings. 14. Explain why some chemical reactions absorb heat from their surroundings. 15. Explain why all chemical reactions either absorb or release energy. 16. Convert between the sign of the heat for a reaction and whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. 17. Write or identify the factors that aFect heats of chemical reaction. 18. Write or identify the reason why H is used to describe heats of chemical reactions not E. 19. Write or identify the temperature and pressure for standard changes in enthalpies. 20. Given a balanced equation and its H, convert between any amount of reactant or product and the amount of heat involved in the chemical reaction of that amount of reactant or product. 21. Given a balanced chemical equation and its H, determine the H for the same reaction with diFerent coecients in the balanced equation. 22. Given a balanced chemical equation and its H, determine the H for the reverse reaction. 23. Explain why the heat absorbed by or evolved from a chemical reaction might be diFerent at constant pressure and at constant volume. 106 Chapter 6 Energy and Chemical Reactions 24. Write or identify the signs for heat absorbed by the system, heat evolved by the system, work done on the system, and work done by the system on the surroundings....
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- Fall '06