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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 7 Electron Confgurations and the Periodic Table 131 Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe the two ways that scientists deal with the complexity and uncertainty associated with the modern understanding of the atom. 2. Describe how electrons are like radiant energy (light). 3. Describe the general steps associated with setting up and solving the wave equations for guitar strings and electrons. 4. Describe the information derived about guitar strings and electrons when their wave equations are solved. 5. Describe the 1 s orbital in a hydrogen atom in terms of negative charge and in terms of the electron as a particle. 6. Explain why electrons in atoms are often described in terms of electron clouds. 7. Describe how electrons are like vibrating guitar strings. 8. Describe the information reected by each of the four quantum numbers (n, l, m l , and m s ) found in the electron wave equation. 9. Use the possible combinations of the quantum numbers n and l to show which sublevels exist for the Frst 4 principal energies levels for the one electron of a hydrogen atom. 10. Use the possible combinations of the quantum numbers n, l, and m l , to show why s sublevels have one orbital, p sublevels have three orbitals, d sublevels have Fve orbitals, and f sublevels have seven orbitals for the one electron of a hydrogen atom. 11. Describe a 2 s orbital for a hydrogen atom. 12. Explain why an electron in a hydrogen atom has lower potential energy in the 1 s orbital than in the 2 s orbital. 13. Describe the three 2 p orbitals for a hydrogen atom. 14. Write or identify descriptions or drawings of the 3 s , 3 p , and 3 d orbitals. 15. Write or identify the possible sublevels on the Frst seven principal energy levels. 16. Explain why hydrogen atoms heated to high temperature emit photons of only certain speciFc energies, wavelengths, and colors (for the visible portion of the spectrum). 17. Describe the eect on the intensity of light when light waves are in-phase and when they are out-of-phase. 18. Explain why when light of a speciFc wavelength is directed at a wall with two slits, a diraction pattern, which consists of a series of lights and darks radiating out from the slits, is found on a wall opposite the slits. 19. Describe the dierence between any two electrons in the same atomic orbital. 132 Chapter 7 Electron Confgurations and the Periodic Table 20. Describe the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and use it to explain (1) why an orbital can contain a maximum of two electrons, (2) why s sublevels can have a maximum of 2 electrons, (3) why p sublevels can have a maximum of 6 electrons, (4) why d sublevels can have a maximum of 10 electrons, and (5) why f sublevels can have a maximum of 14 electrons....
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- Fall '06