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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 12 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Polymers 233 Chapter Objectives Te goal of this chapter is to teach you to do the following. 1 . Given a chemical formula or a Lewis structure for an organic compound, identify it as representing an alkane, alkene, alkyne, arene (aromatic), alcohol, carboxylic acid, ether, aldehyde, ketone, ester, amine, or amide. 2. Convert among Lewis structures, line drawings, and condensed formula for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes (aromatics), alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, amines, or amides. 3. Given a structure for a biomolecule (either printed or on the computer screen as a Chime structure), identify it as a carbohydrate, amino acid, peptide, triglyceride, or steroid. 4. Given a structure for a carbohydrate molecule, identify it as a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or polysaccharide. 5. Describe the general diFerences between glucose, galactose, and fructose. 6. Explain why glucose is found in two ring forms and one open-chain form. Describe the general diFerences between these three structures. 7. Given a ring structure for glucose (either printed or on the computer screen as a Chime structure), identify it as either -glucose or -glucose. 8. Given a Chime structure on the computer screen, identify it as representing either glucose or fructose. 9. Identify the saccharide units that form the disaccharides maltose, lactose, and sucrose. 10. Describe the similarities and diFerences between amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, and cellulose. 11. Explain why starch can be digested in our digestive tract and why cellulose cannot. 12. Given a Chime structure for a disaccharide or a polysaccharide on the computer screen, identify each link between the glucose units as either an alpha link or a beta link. 13. Describe the general structure of amino acids. 14. Explain why amino acid molecules in our bodies usually have a positive end and a negative end. 15. Given structures for two or more amino acids, draw the structure of the peptide they form when linked. 16. Identify descriptions of the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins. 17. Describe how disulde bonds, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges help hold protein molecules together in specic tertiary structures. 18. Explain why it is more ecient to store energy in the body as fat rather than carbohydrate or protein. 19. Write or identify a description of the general structure of a triglyceride molecule. 20. Given the chemical formulas for two triglycerides with a diFerent number of carbon-carbon double bonds, identify the one that is more likely to be solid at room temperature and which one is more likely to be liquid....
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