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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 2 T HE S TRUCTURE OF M ATTER AND THE C HEMICAL E LEMENTS 33 One doesn’t discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time. Andre Gide French Novelist and Essayist n this chapter, we begin the journey that will lead you to an understanding of chemistry. Perhaps your ultimate educational goal is to know how the human body functions or to learn how the many parts of a shoreline ecosystem work together. You won’t get very far in these studies without a basic knowledge of the chemical principles underlying them. Even before talking about basic chemical principles, though, you must learn some of the language of chemistry and develop an image of the physical world that will help you to think like a chemist. Many important tasks in life require that you learn a new language and new skills. When you are learning to drive a car, for example, your driving instructor might tell you that when two cars reach a four‑way stop at the same time, the driver on the left must yield the right of way. This statement won’t mean anything to you unless you already know what a “four‑way stop” is and what is meant by “yield” and “right of way”. To drive safely, you need to learn which of the symbols you see on road signs means “lane merges ahead” or “steep grade”. You need to learn procedures that will help you make lane changes and parallel park. Chemistry, like driving a car, uses a language and skills of its own. Without a firm foundation in these fundamentals, a true understanding of chemistry is impossible. This chapter begins to construct that foundation by introducing some key aspects of the chemists’ view of matter. Review Skills The presentation of information in this chapter assumes that you can already perform the tasks listed below. You can test your readiness to proceed by answering the Review Questions at the end of the chapter. This might also be a good time to read the Chapter Objectives, which precede the Review Questions. Define matter. (Chapter 1 Glossary) Write the SI base units for mass and length and their abbreviations. (Section 1.4) Using everyday examples, describe the general size of a meter and a gram. (Section 1.4) 2.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 2.2 The Chemical Elements 2.3 The Periodic Table of the Elements 2.4 The Structure of the Elements 2.5 Common Elements 34 Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements 2.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases A chemist’s primary interest, as described in Chapter 1, is the behavior of matter, but to understand the behavior of matter, we must first understand its internal structure. What are the internal differences between the granite of Half Dome in Yosemite, the olive oil added to your pasta sauce, and the helium in a child’s balloon? A simple model of the structure of matter will help us begin to answer this question....
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- Fall '06
- Atom, elements, Chemical element