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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 5 A CIDS , B ASES , AND A CID-B ASE R EACTIONS 159 ts test day in chemistry classtheyve been learning about acids and basesand Fran unwisely skips breakfast in order to have time for some lastminute studying. As she reads, she chews on a candy bar and sips a cup of coee. Fran is well aware that the sugary candy sticking to her molars is providing breakfast for the bacteria in her mouth, which in turn produce an acid that will dissolve some of the enamel on her teeth. Feeling a little guilty about all that sugar from the candy, Fran drinks her coee black, even though she doesnt like the taste. The caeine in her coee is a base, and like all bases, it tastes bitter. Frans junkfood breakfast and her worrying about the exam combine to give her an annoying case of acid indigestion, which she calms by drinking some baking soda mixed with water. The baking soda contains a base that neutralizes some of her excess stomach acid. After taking the exam, Fran feels happy and condent. All those hours working problems, reviewing the learning objectives, and participating in class really paid o. Now shes ready for some lunch. Before eating, she washes her hands with soap made from the reaction of a strong base and animal fat. One of the reasons the soap is slippery is because all bases feel slippery on the skin. To compensate for her lessthanhealthy breakfast, Fran chooses salad with a piece of lean meat on top for lunch. Like all acids, the vinegar in her salad dressing tastes sour. Her stomach produces just enough additional acid to start the digestion of the protein from the meat. Read on to learn more about the acids and bases that are important in Frans life and your own: what they are, how to construct their names and recognize their formulas, and how they react with each other. 5.1 Acids 5.2 Acid Nomenclature 5.3 Summary of Chemical Nomenclature 5.4 Strong and Weak Bases 5.5 pH and Acidic and Basic Solutions 5.6 Arrhenius Acid-Base Reactions 5.7 Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Review Skills The presentation of information in this chapter assumes that you can already perform the tasks listed below. You can test your readiness to proceed by answering the Review Questions at the end of the chapter. This might also be a good time to read the Chapter Objectives, which precede the Review Questions. Describe the structure of liquid water. (Section 3.3) Convert between the names and formulas for common polyatomic ions. (Table 3.5) Given a chemical name or formula, decide whether or not it represents an ionic compound. (Section 3.5) Convert between names and formulas for ionic compounds. (Section 3.5) Write a description of the changes that take place when an ionic compound is dissolved in water. (Section 4.2) Predict ionic solubility. (Section 4.2) Predict the products of doubledisplacement reactions. (Section 4.2) The vinegar in salad dressing tastes sour, as do all acids. 5.1 Acids Acids have many uses. For example, phosphoric acid is used to make gasoline additives Acids have many uses....
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