Bishop_Book_11_eBook - C HAPTER 11 M ODERN A TOMIC T HEORY...

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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 11 M ODERN A TOMIC T HEORY 413 cientists attempts to understand the atom have led them into the unfamiliar world of the unimaginably small, where the rules of physics seem to be different from the rules in the world we can see and touch. Scientists explore this world through the use of mathematics. Perhaps this is similar to the way a writer uses poetry to express ideas and feelings beyond the reach of everyday language. Mathematics allows the scientist to explore beyond the boundaries of the world we can experience directly. Just as scholars then try to analyze the poems and share ideas about them in everyday language, scientists try to translate the mathematical description of the atom into words that more of us can understand. Although both kinds of translation are fated to fall short of capturing the fundamental truths of human nature and the physical world, the attempt is worthwhile for the occasional glimpse of those truths that it provides. This chapter offers a brief, qualitative introduction to the mathematical description of electrons and describes the highly utilitarian model of atomic structure that chemists have constructed from it. Because we are reaching beyond the world of our senses, we should not be surprised that the model we create is uncertain and, when described in normal language, a bit vague. In spite of these limitations, however, you will return from your journey into the strange, new world of the extremely small with a useful tool for explaining and predicting the behavior of matter. 11.1 The Mysterious Electron 11.2 Multi-Electron Atoms To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour William Blake (1757-1827) Auguries of Innocence Describe the nuclear model of the atom. (Section 2.4) Describe the relationship between stability and potential energy. (Section 7.1) Review Skills The presentation of information in this chapter assumes that you can already perform the tasks listed below. You can test your readiness to proceed by answering the Review Questions at the end of the chapter. This might also be a good time to read the Chapter Objectives, which precede the Review Questions. Chemists try to see the structure of matter even more closely than can be seen in any photograph. 11.1 The Mysterious Electron Where there is an open mind, there will always be a frontier. Charles F. Kettering (1876-1958) American engineer and inventor Scientists have known for a long time that it is incorrect to think of electrons as tiny particles orbiting the nucleus like planets around the sun. Nevertheless, nonscientists have become used to picturing them in this way. In some circumstances, this solar system model of the atom may be useful, but you should know that the electron is much more unusual than that model suggests. The electron is extremely tiny, and modern physics tells us that strange things happen in the realm of the very, very small.physics tells us that strange things happen in the realm of the very, very small....
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2012 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Mark during the Fall '06 term at Monterey Peninsula College.

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Bishop_Book_11_eBook - C HAPTER 11 M ODERN A TOMIC T HEORY...

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