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Chapter 8
Unit Conversions
Review Skills
8.1
Unit Analysis
An Overview of the General Procedure
MetricMetric Unit Conversions
EnglishMetric Unit Conversions
8.2
Rounding Off and Significant Figures
Measurements, Calculations, and Uncertainty
Rounding Off Answers Derived from Multiplication and Division
Rounding Off Answers Derived from Addition and Subtraction
8.3
Density and Density Calculations
Using Density as a Conversion Factor
Determination of Mass Density
8.4
Percentage and Percentage Calculations
8.5
A Summary of the Unit Analysis Process
8.6
Temperature Conversions
Chapter Glossary
Internet: Glossary Quiz
Chapter Objectives
Review Questions
Key Ideas
Chapter Problems
Section Goals and Introductions
Be sure that you can do the things listed in the Review Skills section before you spend too
much time studying this chapter. They are especially important. You might also want to look at
Appendices A and B. Appendix A (
Measurement and Units
) provides tables that show units,
their abbreviations, and relationships between units that lead to conversion factors. Appendix B
(
Scientific Notation
) describes how to convert between regular decimal numbers and numbers
expressed in scientific notation, and it shows how calculations using scientific notation are
done.
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Study Guide for
An Introduction to Chemistry
Section 8.1
Unit Analysis
Goals
To describe a procedure for making unit conversions called unit analysis.
To describe metricmetric unit conversions.
To describe Englishmetric unit conversions.
Many chemical calculations include the conversion from a value expressed in one unit to the
equivalent value expressed in a different unit. Unit analysis, which is described in this section,
provides you with an organized format for making these unit conversions and gives you a
logical thought process that will help you to reason through such calculations. It is extremely
important that you master this technique. You’ll be glad you have when you go on to Chapters
9 and 10, which describe chemical calculations that can be done using the unit analysis
technique.
Section 8.2
Rounding Off and Significant Figures
Goal: To describe the procedures for rounding off answers to calculations.
When you use a calculator to complete your calculations, it’s common that most of the
numbers you see on the display at the end of the calculation are meaningless. This section
describes why this is true and shows you simple techniques that you can use to round off your
answers.
Section 8.3
Density and Density Calculations
Goal: To describe what density is, how it can be used as a conversion factor, and how density
can be calculated.
Density calculations are common in chemistry. The examples in this section show you how
these calculations are done, and perhaps more important, these density calculations provide
more examples of the unit analysis techniques and the procedures for rounding.
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 Fall '06
 Mark
 International System of Units, Kilogram, Orders of magnitude, C

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