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ppt_4Bishop_atoms - Chapter 4 Modern Atomic Theory Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Modern Atomic Theory Chapter Map Some Chemical Changes Release Energy Combustion of Methane CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + Some Chemical Changes Absorb Energy Energy Terms • Energy = the capacity to do work • Work, in this context, may be defined as what is done to move an object against some sort of resistance. Two Types of Energy • Kinetic Energy = the energy of motion = 1/2 mμ2 • Potential Energy = energy by virtue of position or state Law of Conservation of Energy Endergonic Change more stable + energy → less stable system lesser capacity + energy → greater capacity to do work to do work lower PE + energy → higher PE coin in hand + energy → coin in air above hand Coin and Potential Energy Bond Breaking and Potential Energy Exergonic Change less stable system → more stable + energy greater capacity → lesser capacity + energy to do work to do work higher PE → lower PE + energy coin in air above hand → coin on ground + energy Bond Making and Potential Energy Which higher energy? Is it kinetic or potential? • 428 m/s Ar atoms or 456 m/s Ar atoms? • 428 m/s Ar atoms or 428 m/s Kr atoms? • Na+ close to Cl− or Na+ and Cl− far apart? • ROOR or 2 RO • H(g) and O2(g) or HO2(g) • Solid CO2 or gaseous CO2 Units of Energy kg m • Joule (J) = s2 • • • • 2 4.184 J = 1 cal 4.184 kJ = 1 kcal 4184 J = 1 Cal (dietary calorie) 4.184 kJ = 1 Cal Approximate Energy of Various Events More Terms • External Kinetic Energy = Kinetic energy associated with the overall movement of a body • Internal Kinetic Energy = Kinetic energy associated with the random motion of the particles within a body External and Internal Kinetic Energy Heat • Heat = Energy transfer from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature due to collisions of particles. Heat Transfer Radiant Energy • Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that behaves like a stream of particles. • It has a dual Nature – Particle • photons = tiny packets of radiant energy • 1017 photons/second from a flashlight bulb – Wave • oscillating electric and magnetic fields • describes effect on space, not true nature of radiant energy A Light Wave’s Electric and Magnetic Fields Radiant Energy Spectrum Atomic Theory • To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour William Blake Auguries of Innocence • Thus, the task is not so much to see what no one has yet seen, but to think what nobody has yet thought, about that which everybody sees. Erwin Schrodinger Ways to deal with Complexity and Uncertainty • Analogies In order to communicate something of the nature of the electron, scientists often use analogies. For example, in some ways, electrons are like vibrating guitar strings. • Probabilities In order to accommodate the uncertainty of the electron’s position and motion, we refer to where the electron probably is within the atom instead of where it definitely is. Guitar String Waveform Allowed Vibrations for a Guitar String Wave Character of the Electron • Just as the intensity of the movement of a guitar string can vary, so can the intensity of the negative charge of the electron vary at different positions outside the nucleus. • The variation in the intensity of the electron charge can be described in terms of a three-dimensional standing wave like the standing wave of the guitar string. Wave Character of the Electron • Although both the electron and the guitar string can have an infinite number of possible waveforms, only certain waveforms are possible. • We can focus our attention on the waveform of varying charge intensity without having to think about the actual physical nature of the electron. Waveform for 1s Electron Other Allowed Waveforms 1s Orbital Particle Interpretation of 1s Orbital 2s Orbital • The 2s orbital for a hydrogen atom is larger than the 1s orbital and has a node, which is a region within the orbital where the charge intensity decreases to zero. Cutaway of 1s and 2s Orbitals Ground State and Excited State • Hydrogen atoms with their electron in the 1s orbital are said to be in their ground state. • A hydrogen atom with its electron in the 2s orbital is in an excited state. Realistic and Stylized 2py Orbital 2px, 2py, and 2pz Orbitals 3d Orbitals Other Allowed Waveforms Sublevels • Orbitals that have the same potential energy, the same size, and the same shape are in the same sublevel. • The sublevels are sometimes called subshells. Orbitals for Ground States of Known Elements Electron Spin Pauli Exclusion Principle • No two electrons in an atom can be the same in all ways. • There are four ways that electrons can be the same: • Electrons can be in the same principal energy level. • They can be in the same sublevel. • They can be in the same orbital. • They can have the same spin. Ways to Describe Electrons in Atoms • Arrows are added to an orbital diagram to show the distribution of electrons in the possible orbitals and the relative spin of each electron. The following is an orbital diagram for a nitrogen atom. • The information in orbital diagrams is often described in a shorthand notation called an electron configuration. 1s2 2s2 2p3 Electron Configurations • The sublevels are filled in such a way as to yield the lowest overall potential energy for the atom. • No two electrons in an atom can be the same in all ways. This is one statement of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. • When electrons are filling orbitals of the same energy, they prefer to enter empty orbitals first, and all electrons in half-filled orbitals have the same spin. This is called Hund’s Rule. Electron Configurations (cont.) Order of Orbital Filling 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p Writing Electron Configurations • Determine the number of electrons in the atom from its atomic number. • Add electrons to the sublevels in the correct order of filling. • Add two electrons to each s sublevel, 6 to each p sublevel, 10 to each d sublevel, and 14 to each f sublevel. • To check your complete electron configuration, look to see whether the location of the last electron added corresponds to the element’s position on the periodic table. Order of Filling from the Periodic Table Long Periodic Table Drawing Orbital Diagrams • Draw a line for each orbital of each sublevel mentioned in the complete electron configuration. Draw one line for each s sublevel, three lines for each p sublevel, five lines for each d sublevel, and seven lines for each f sublevel. • Label each sublevel. • For orbitals containing two electrons, draw one arrow up and one arrow down to indicate the electrons’ opposite spin. • For unfilled sublevels, follow Hund’s Rule. Abbreviated Electron Configurations • The highest energy electron are most important for chemical bonding. • The noble gas configurations of electrons are especially stable and, therefore, not important for chemical bonding. • We often describe electron configurations to reflect this representing the noble gas electrons with a noble gas symbol in brackets. • For example, for sodium 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 goes to [Ne] 3s1 Writing Abbreviated Electron Configurations • Find the symbol for the element on a periodic table. • Write the symbol in brackets for the noble gas located at the far right of the preceding horizontal row on the table. • Move back down a row (to the row containing the element you wish to describe) and to the far left. Following the elements in the row from left to right, write the outer-electron configuration associated with each column until you reach the element you are describing. Abbreviated Electron Configurations – Optional Step • Rewrite the abbreviated electron configuration, listing the sublevels in the order of increasing principal energy level (all of the 3’s before the 4’s, all of the 4’s before the 5’s, etc.) Group 1 Abbreviated Electron Configurations Abbreviated Electron Configuration Steps for Zinc Common Mistakes • Complete electron configurations – miscounting electrons (Use the periodic table to determine order of filling.) • Orbital diagrams – forgetting to leave electrons unpaired with the same spin when adding electrons to the p, d, or f sublevels (Hund’s Rule) • Abbreviated electron configurations – Forgetting to put 4f14 after [Xe] – Forgetting to list sublevels in the order of increasing principal energy level ...
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