ppt_13Bishop_atoms - Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics Chapter...

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Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics
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Chapter Map
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Why Changes Happen Consider a system that can switch freely between two states, A and B. Probability helps us to predict that the system will shift to state B if state B has its particles and energy more dispersed, leading to more ways to arrange the particles and energy in the system.
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9-Point Universe
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Probability of Gas In 9-point universe, 96% of the arrangements of 4 particles are gas-like. In 16-point universe, 99.5% of the arrangements of 4 particles are gas-like. Therefore, an increase in the number of possible positions leads to an increase in the probability that the system will be in the more dispersed, gas-like state. In real systems, there are huge numbers of particles in huge numbers of positions, so there is an extremely high probability that the systems will be in the more dispersed, gas-like state.
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General Statement Changes tend to take place to shift from less probable, less dispersed arrangements that have fewer ways to arrange the particles to more probable, more dispersed states that have more ways to arrange the particles.
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Solids shift spontaneously to gases. Why does dry ice, CO
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ppt_13Bishop_atoms - Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics Chapter...

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