ppt_15Bishop_atoms - Chapter 15 An Introduction to Organic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 15 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Synthetic Polymers Chapter Map Organic Chemistry • Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon-based compounds. • There are two reasons why there are millions of organic chemicals. – Carbon atoms can form strong bonds to other carbon atoms and still form bonds to atoms of other elements. – There are many different ways to arrange the same atoms in carbonbased compounds. Ways to Describe Organic Compounds • Lewis structures • Condensed Formulas CH3CH(CH3)CH3 • Line Drawings Alkanes - Hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, CH3C(CH3)2CH2CH(CH3)CH3 Pre-ignition Knock and Octane Rating Steps to Octane Rating • Measure efficiency and degree of vibration for a test engine running on various percentages of heptane (a straight-chain hydrocarbon) and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (a branched-chain hydrocarbon). • Run the same test engine with the gasoline to be tested, and measure its efficiency and degree of vibration. • Assign an octane rating to the gasoline based on comparison of the efficiency and degree of vibration of the test engine with the gasoline and the various percentages of 2,2,4trimethylpentane (octane or isooctane) and heptane. For example, if the gasoline runs the test engine as efficiently as 91% 2,2,4trimethylpentane (octane or isooctane) and 9% heptane, it gets an octane rating of 91. Alkenes - Hydrocarbons that have one or more carboncarbon double bonds 2-methylpropene (isobutene), CH2C(CH3)CH3 Alkynes - Hydrocarbons that have one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds Ethyne (acetylene), HCCH Benzene Arenes (or Aromatics) - Compounds that contain the benzene ring Alcohols - compounds with one or more -OH groups attached to a hydrocarbon group Glycerol, HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH Carboxylic Acids Stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16CO2H Ethers - two hydrocarbon groups surrounding an oxygen atom Diethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Aldehyde 2-methylbutanal, CH3CH(CH3)CH2CHO Ketones The R’s must be hydrocarbon groups. They cannot be hydrogen atoms. 2-propanone (acetone), CH3COCH3 Esters The R’ must be a hydrocarbon group. It cannot be a hydrogen atom. Ethyl butanoate, CH3CH2CH2CO2CH2CH3 Amine Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N Amides Ethanamide (acetamide), CH3CONH2 Difunctional Compounds - GABA Types of Biomolecules • Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) – Disaccharides (maltose, lactose, and sucrose) – Polysaccharides (starch and cellulose) • Amino Acids and Proteins • Triglycerides • Steroids Monosaccharides Glucose Galactose Fructose Maltose Sucrose Lactose Amylose Amylopectin or Glycogen Cellulose Amino Acids Alanine Formation of Ala-Ser-Gly-Cys Protein Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) Primary and Secondary Protein Structures • Primary Structure = the sequence of amino acids in the protein • The arrangement of atoms that are close to each other in the polypeptide chain is called the secondary structure of protein. – Three types • α-helix • β-sheet • irregular α-helix - Secondary Structure β-Sheet Secondary Structure Tertiary Protein Structure • The very specific overall shape of the protein called its tertiary structure. • The protein chain is held in its tertiary structure by interactions between the side chains of its amino acids. – Disulfide bonds – Hydrogen bonds – Salt bridges Disulfide Bonds in Proteins Hydrogen Bonding in Proteins Salt Bridge in Proteins The Ribbon Structure of the Protein BPTI Disruption of Salt Bridge Triglycerides (Fats and Oils) Saturated Triglyceride Tristearin Tristearin – Line Drawing Unsaturated Triglyceride Cis and Trans • When there is a double bond between two carbons and when like groups are on different carbons and the same side of the double bond the arrangement is called cis. • When the like groups are on opposite sides of the double bond the arrangement is called trans. Hydrogenation Hydrogenation - Example Trans Fats • Hydrogenation is reversible. • When the double bond is reformed, it is more likely to form the more stable trans form than the less stable cis form. • Therefore, partial hydrogenated vegetable oils contain trans fats, which are considered to be damaging to your health. Olestra - a Fat Substitute Steroid Skeleton Cholesterol Testosterone Formation Estradiol Hydrolysis Reactions Digestion Products Substance in Food Products of Digestion disaccharides monosaccharides polysaccharides glucose protein amino acids Triglycerides (fats and glycerol and fatty acids oils) Disruption of Salt Bridge Amide Hydrolysis Enzymes • Enzymes are naturally occurring catalysts. Catalysts speed chemical changes without being permanently altered themselves. • The chemicals that they act on are called substrates. • Very specific due to – Shape – “Lock and Key” – Positions of binding groups, which attract substrates to the active site, the portion of the enzyme where the reaction occurs. – Positions of the catalytic groups that speed the reaction. Enzymes Speed Chemical Reactions • Provide a different path to products that has more stable intermediates and therefore requires less energy. • Give the correct orientation every time. Nylon Formation Nylon-66 Polyester Formation Polyethylene Formation Poly(vinyl chloride) or PVC Addition Polymers Thermoplastics’ Uses Thermosets’ Uses Recycling Codes ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2012 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Mark during the Fall '06 term at Monterey Peninsula College.

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