psych exam2 - Learning Chapter 7 Classical conditioning-...

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Learning – Chapter 7 Classical conditioning- simple associations (lighting and thunder) o Ivan Pavlov US – stimulus that automatically leads to a response before training (food) UR – automatic response (salivation) CS – neutral stimulus before training that is paired with US (bell) CR – learned response to CS (salivating at bell) Acquisition – obtaining a CS Extinction – when CS no longer leads to CR Spontaneous recovery – recovering of extinct CR after a period of non-exposure time Stimulus generalization – things resembling stimulus bring about CR (little albert being afraid of fur coats, etc.) Stimulus discrimination – similar things to CS do not cause CR Second order conditioning – an established CS is used to establish a CR with a second CS Applications o Systematic desensitization – teach relaxation during contact with CS. Create hierarchy of least to most feared stimuli and work through them o Aversive conditioning – Pairing something bad with something to get you to stop (alcohol=shock pain. Then alcohol pain) Operant Conditioning – organisms learning how their voluntary actions affect them o Law of Effect – if an action is followed by a good thing it is strengthened, if it is followed by bad, it is weakened o Positive reinforcement – when something is added , event is more likely to happen o Negative reinforcement – when something is removed , event is more likely to happen o Punishment – makes event less likely to occur o Shaping- rewarding little by little as task is done. (Skinner teaching pigeon to turn in circles) o Avoidance conditioning – rat learns that pressing a bar relieves it from shock (operant), a light is paired with the shock (classical), the light results in the rat pressing the bar (avoidance) o Primary Reinforcers – satisfying a physiological need o Secondary Reinforcers – things that are needed to get primary (money)
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Hyland during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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psych exam2 - Learning Chapter 7 Classical conditioning-...

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