fingerprint05fall_handouts

fingerprint05fall_handouts - August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 1...

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Unformatted text preview: August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 1 Fingerprint Identification BIOM 426 Instructor: Natalia A. Schmid Images are from Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition by D. Maltoni, et al. August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 2 Introduction Applications: -law enforcement-access to computer, network, bank-machine, car, home -security applications (US Visit)-National ID card August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 3 Introduction Factors in favor of fingerprint applications: small and inexpensive capture devices (about 100 USD); fast computing hardware; recognition rate meets the needs of many applications (about 1sec); increasing number of networks and Internet transactions; awareness of the need for ease-of-use as an important component of reliable security well accepted by public August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 4 History Use of fingerprints for identification since 7000 to 6000 BC by ancient Assyrians and Chinese (prints on pottery, clay, bricks). Fingerprinting of criminals for identification ~ Babylon around 1792-1750 BC. August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 5 History Starting in 1809 Thomas Bewickbegan to use his fingerprint as a trademark. Purkinje, 1823, proposed to classify fingerprints in 9 classes (based on general pattern). Sir Francis Galtonintroduced minutiae features for matching in 1888. Edward Henry, 1897, established Henry system of fingerprint classification. In the mid-1800's two facts were established: (i) no two fingerprints have the same ridge pattern and (ii) fingerprint pattern have good permanence. B y the early 20 th century the formations of fingerprints were well understood. The nine patterns illustrated in Purkinjes thesis. August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 6 History In the early 20 th century fingerprint identification was accepted as a personal identification method. Fingerprint recognition techniques including latent fingerprint acquisition, fingerprint classification and matching were developed. The FBI fingerprint identification division was set up in 1924with a database of 810,000 fingerprint cards. Computer processing began in 1960s with introduction of computer hardware. Basis for automatic identification. Since 1980s fingerprints are used in non-criminal applications (due to personal computers and optical scanners). Personal use ~ due to introduction of inexpensive capture devises and reliable matching algorithms. August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 7 Image Capture Devices Ink technique: acquisition of a latent fingerprint Optical : based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Size: 6 x 3 x 6 in. in 1970s 3 x 1 x 1 in. mid-1990s Cost drop: $1500 -$100 Solid-state sensors: -capacitive, -pressure sensitive, -temperature sensitive Size: 1 x 1 in. (small) Resolution: 500 dpi Ultrasonic scanning: high quality images August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 8 Image Capture Devices Analog-to-Digital converter Responsible for communicating with external devices Reading device protection/encryption (secure identification system)...
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fingerprint05fall_handouts - August 30, 2005 BIOM 426 1...

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