022107_review - Exam Tomorrow Remember to bring...

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Exam Tomorrow Remember to bring Scantron(s) #2 pencils, sharpened Student ID Your seat assignment Two more review sessions today, 1:00pm and 6:00pm
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Review Session Chapter 8 Critical periods & language learning Metacognition Chapter 10 Theories of Emotion Achievement Motivation Happiness Chapter 16 Effects of Groups Persuasion
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Adults & Critical Periods Most adults cannot learn a new language as easily as children can. Critical or sensitive period: theory that language learning is different before and after puberty (approximately) Cases of isolated children: Isabelle & Genie Fluency and accents Different cortical regions involved
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Metacognition Metacognition: Awareness and understanding of your own cognitive abilities Metacomprehension: Not just understanding something, knowing that and how you understand it Metamemory: Not just remembering thing, knowing what you remember and how you remembered it
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Effects of Groups Social Facilitation Social Loafing Group Polarization Groupthink Deindividuation
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Social Facilitation Tendency to perform one’s dominant responses in the mere presence of others. Mere presence of others: heightened arousal Enhance tendency towards dominant responses If dominant = correct/good, then perf. enhanced If dominant = incorrect/bad, then perf. impaired Cockroaches (Zajonc et al., 1969) Example: Playing video games
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Social Loafing Tendency to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone. Ringelmann (1913): rope pulling Example: group projects More likely if not monitored, not invested, low motivation, expect others to do it
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Group Polarization When like-minded people discuss an issue, “average” opinion becomes more extreme Myers & Bishop (1970) Low prejudice groups discuss racial issues, become more open or understanding Opposite true of high prejudice groups Related to radical terrorism (McCauley, 2002; Merari, 2002). Polarization on the blogosphere
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Groupthink Tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement Example: group project Example: NASA What happens Pressure not to say anything Illusion of unanimity
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Deindividuation Loss of individuality leads to disinhibited behavior.
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