Psychology in Action

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T EXT E NRICHMENT Page Chapter Outline 181 Learning Objectives 182 Chapter Summary/Lecture Organizer 183 Teaching Resources 186 Lecture Lead-Ins 187 Lecture Extender 188 Key Terms 190 Discussion Questions 191 Web Sites 192 Suggested Films and Videos 193 Books for Success 195 DEMONSTRATIONS, EXERCISES, PROJECTS Active Learning Activities 196 Brain-Based Learning Activities 202 Critical Thinking Exercises 204 Gender and Cultural Diversity Activity 207 Writing Project 209 Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 6          Page   180 C HAPTER 6 LEARNING
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O utline Classical Conditioning Pavlov and Watson’s Contributions Basic Principles Operant Conditioning Thorndike’s and Skinner’s Contributions Basic Principles Psychology at Work Why Can’t We Get Anything Done Around Here? Critical Thinking/Active Learning Using Learning Principles to Succeed In College Cognitive-Social Learning Insight and Latent Learning Observational Learning Research Highlight The Theory Heard Round the World Gender and Cultural Diversity Scaffolding as a Teaching Technique in Different Cultures The Biology of Learning Neuroscience and Learning Evolution and Learning Using Conditioning and Learning Principles Psychology at Work Classical Conditioning Psychology at Work Operant Conditioning Psychology at Work Cognitive-Social Learning Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 6          Page   181
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L earning O bjectives Upon completion of CHAPTER 6, the student should be able to: 6.1 Compare learning and conditioning. (p. 204) 6.2 Define classical conditioning, and describe Pavlov and Watson’s contributions. (p. 204) 6.3 Describe the six principles of classical conditioning. (p. 208) 6.4 Define operant conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment. (p. 212) 6.5 Describe Thorndike and Skinner’s contributions. (p. 212) 6.6 Explain how primary and secondary reinforcers and positive and negative reinforcement strengthen behavior. (p. 213) 6.7 Explain why negative reinforcement is not punishment. (p. 214) 6.8 Contrast continuous and partial (intermittent) reinforcement, and identify the four schedules of partial reinforcement. (p. 215) 6.9 Define shaping and tell why it’s important. (p. 216) 6.10 Explain how positive and negative punishment weaken behavior. (p. 217) 6.11 Why is punishment “tricky,” and what are its serious side effects. (p. 217) 6.12 How can we effectively use reinforcement and punishment? (p. 220) 6.13 Briefly summarize the similarities between classical and operant conditioning. (p. 221) 6.14 Define cognitive-social learning, and describe Köhler and Tolman’s contributions. (p. 223) 6.15 What is observational learning and what are the four factors required for learning by observation? (p. 225) 6.16 Describe the positive cross-cultural effects of observational learning through television.
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