Psychology in Action

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T EXT E NRICHMENT Page Chapter Outline 212 Learning Objectives 213 Chapter Summary/Lecture Organizer 214 Teaching Resources 217 Lecture Lead-Ins 218 Lecture Extenders 219 Key Terms 221 Discussion Questions 222 Web Sites 223 Suggested Films and Videos 224 Books for Success 225 DEMONSTRATIONS, EXERCISES, PROJECTS Active Learning Activities 226 Brain-Based Learning Activities 231 Critical Thinking Exercises 234 Gender and Cultural Diversity Activity 237 Writing Project 238 Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 7            Page   211        C HAPTER 7 MEMORY
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O utline The Nature of Memory Memory Models Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory (STM) Long-Term Memory (LTM) Psychology at Work Improving Long-Term Memory (LTM) Forgetting How Quickly Do We Forget? Why Do We Forget? Psychology at Work Key Factors in Forgetting Gender and Cultural Diversity Cultural Differences in Memory and Forgetting Biological Bases of Memory How Are Memories Formed? Where Are Memories Located? Biological Causes of Memory Loss Research Highlight Memory and the Criminal Justice System Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory Understanding Memory Distortions Tips for Memory Improvement Critical Thinking/Active Learning Memory and Metacognition Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 7            Page   212
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L earning   O bjectives Upon completion of CHAPTER 7, the student should be able to: 7.1 Define memory, and describe the information-processing and parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of memory. (p. 244) 7.2 Summarize the three-stage memory model. (p. 247) 7.3 What is sensory memory? (p. 247) 7.4 Describe short-term memory (STM). (p. 248) 7.5 Summarize long-term memory (LTM), how it’s divided into several subsystems, and how we can improve it. (p. 249) 7.6 Describe Ebbinghaus’s contribution to memory research. (p. 257) 7.7 What are the five major theories of forgetting? (p. 257) 7.8 Describe four key factors that contribute to forgetting. (p. 260) 7.9 How does culture affect memory? (p. 261) 7.10 How do we form memories, and where do we store them? (p. 263) 7.11 What are the major biological causes of memory loss? (p. 264) 7.12 What’s wrong with eyewitness testimony? (p. 268) 7.13 What do psychologists believe about repressed memories? (p. 268) 7.14 Why do we distort our memories? (p. 270) 7.15 How can we improve our memory? (p. 271) Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 7            Page   213
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   C hapter   S ummary / L ecture   O rganizer I. The Nature of Memory – Two common memory models are presented. Table 7.1 provides an overview comparing each of these models. A. Memory Models 1. Information Processing Model – The information processing model of memory proposes a computer model to explain how information in memory is processed using the operations of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding gets information into the brain and is similar to a keyboard. Storage retains information like the computer’s hard drive
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