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Unformatted text preview: core Web programming Introduction to Java © 2001-2003 Marty Hall, Larry Brown http://www.corewebprogramming.com 1 Agenda • • • • • • 2 Unique Features of Java Java versions Installation and running Java programs Basic Hello World application Command line arguments Basic Hello WWW applet Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 1 Java is Web-Enabled and Network Savvy • Safety in Java programs can be enforced – Array bounds never violated; no address manipulation – Types enforced • The Web can deliver Software – No more installation or updates; just a bookmark • Java’s client/server library is easy to use – Ordinary mortals can do network programming • Distributed Object Protocol and DBMS API – RMI and JDBC 3 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Hubble Space Telescope Monitoring “NASA Goddard’s Most Successful Software Project Ever” 4 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 2 Mars Pathfinder Mission Simulator Used for world-wide data viewing 5 www.corewebprogramming.com Introduction to Java Java is Cross Platform • Compiles to machine-independent bytecode Java Source Code Compiler (javac) Java Bytecode Java Bytecode JIT Compiler or Interpreter Execution • Windows, MacOS, OS/2, Solaris, … • Java has a portable graphics library • Java avoids hard-to-port constructs 6 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 3 StarOffice 5.2 7 Introduction to Java Cross-platform office suite completely written in Java www.corewebprogramming.com Java is Simple • Java has automatic memory management – No dangling pointers – No memory leaks • Java simplifies pointer handling – No reference/dereference operations • No makefiles/No header files • C++ syntax streamlined 8 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 4 MEL - Master Environmental Library Interactive geospatial data discovery and retrieval 9 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Java is Object Oriented • All functions are associated with objects – “Member functions” are only functions – Some describe it “object-obsessed” • Almost all datatypes are objects – Files, arrays, strings, sockets, etc. – Still have “primitive” types for efficiency • byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean • Object is a common ancestor of all classes 10 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 5 Java is Rich with Powerful Standard Libraries • Threads (lightweight processes) • Building and using data structures – Java Foundation Classes • Parsing strings/streams – JDK 1.4 supports Regular Expressions • Arbitrary precision integers and fixed-point arithmetic • Serialization (saving object state to disk or sending via socket) • Invoking remove objects – RMI • Interfacing with relational databases – JDBC • And many more … 11 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Java Versions • Java 1.0 released in 1995 • Java 1.1 released in early 1997 – – – – – A new event-handling model based on listeners Remote method invocation (RMI) and object serialization Support for inner and anonymous classes Arbitrary precision integers and floating-point numbers Java DataBase Connectivity (JDBC) API for connecting relations databases – JavaBeans component architecture (Java’s answer to ActiveX) – Digitally signed applets to extended security privileges without resorting to the “all or nothing” model of browser plug-ins or ActiveX 12 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 6 Java Versions, cont. • Java 2 Platform released in December 1998 • Standard Edition (JDK 1.2) – Swing GUI components based on 100% Pure Java – Java 2D for professional, high-quality, two-dimensional graphics and imaging – The Collections Framework supporting advanced data structures like linked lists, trees, and sets – Audio enhancements to support .wav, .aiff, .au, .midi, and .rmf file formats – Printing of graphic objects – Java IDL API, which adds CORBA capability to Java 13 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Java Versions, cont. • JDK 1.3 released in Spring of 2000 – Major Enhancements: • Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI)—a directory service for registering and looking up resources (objects) • RMI-IIOP—a protocol to communicate with distributed clients that are written in CORBA-compliant language • JDK 1.4 released in Spring 2002 – Major Enhancements • • • • • • 14 XML Processing Logging API Assertions Next generation I/0 library (java.nio) SSL JAAS – authentication and authorization API Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 7 Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition • Focused at e-commerce solutions – Java Servlets and JavaServer Pages—Sun’s answer to Microsoft Active Server Pages and ColdFusion – Enterprise JavaBeans for bundling business logic in server-side components – JDBC data access for scrollable database queries (result sets) – JavaMail to send and receive mail with SMTP, POP3, or IMAP4 protocols – JAXP for parsing XML documents – Java Message Service for asynchronous communication between enterprise applications 15 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Which Version Should You Use? • Applets – Use JDK 1.1 – Internet Explorer 4.0 and later and Netscape 4.06 through 4.72 support JDK 1.1. Netscape 6 and later support JDK 1.3. – Java Plug-In is required for later versions of Java • Applications – For standard applications use JDK 1.4 (known as Java 2 SDK, Standard Edition, Version 1.4) • Best Approach – Use JDK 1.4, but bookmark the JDK 1.1 API to check available methods when writing applets 16 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 8 Getting Started: Nuts and Bolts 1. Install Java – JDK 1.4 • http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/ – JDK 1.1 • • No longer supported by Sun Compile to JDK 1.1 byte code using –target directive 2. Install a Java-Enabled Browser – Netscape Navigator • http://home.netscape.com/download/ – Microsoft Internet Explorer • http://www.microsoft.com/ie/download/ – Sun’s HotJava • 17 http://java.sun.com/products/hotjava/ Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Getting Started: Nuts and Bolts, cont. 3. Bookmark or install the on-line Java API – Java 2 SDK, Version 1.4 (JDK 1.4) • • – API Specification, http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/ API Download, http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html#docs Java 1.1(JDK 1.1) • API and Documentation, http://java.sun.com/products/archive/jdk/1.1/index.html 4. Create and run a Java program – – – 18 Create the file Compile it Run it Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 9 Getting Started: Details 1. Create the File – Write and save a file (say Test.java) that defines public class Test – File and class names are case sensitive and must match exactly 2. Compile the program – Compile Test.java through javac Test.java • This step creates a file called Test.class – If you get a “deprecation” warning, this means you are using a Java construct that has a newer alternative • 19 Use “javac -deprecation Test.java” for an explanation, then look the newer construct up in the on-line API www.corewebprogramming.com Introduction to Java Getting Started: Details, cont. 3. Run the program – For a stand-alone application, run it through java Test • Note that the command is java, not javac, and that you refer to Test, not Test.class – For an applet that will run in a browser, run it by loading the WWW page that refers to it 20 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 10 Basic Hello World Application • “Application” is Java lingo for a stand-alone Java program – Note that the class name and the filename match – A file can contain multiple classes, but only one can be declared public, and that one’s name must match the filename • File HelloWorld.java: public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String args) { System.out.println("Hello, world."); } } 21 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Basic Hello World Application, cont. • Compiling: – javac HelloWorld.java • Running: – java HelloWorld • Output: – Hello, world. 22 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 11 Command Line Arguments • Differences from C – In Java String is a real type – Java arrays have an associated length – The file name is not part of the command line arguments • File ShowArgs.java: public class ShowArgs { public static void main(String args) { for(int i=0; i<args.length; i++) { System.out.println("Arg " + i + " is " + args[i]); } } } 23 www.corewebprogramming.com Introduction to Java Command Line Arguments, Results • Compiling and Running: > javac ShowArgs.java > java ShowArgs fee fie foe fum Arg Arg Arg Arg 24 0 1 2 3 is is is is Introduction to Java fee fie foe fum www.corewebprogramming.com 12 Basic Hello WWW Applet • File HelloWWW.java: import java.applet.Applet; import java.awt.*; public class HelloWWW extends Applet { public void init() { setBackground(Color.gray); setForeground(Color.white); setFont(new Font("SansSerif", Font.BOLD, 30)); } public void paint(Graphics g) { g.drawString("Hello, World Wide Web.", 5, 35); } } 25 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Basic Hello WWW Applet, cont. • File HelloWWW.html: <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>HelloWWW: Simple Applet Test.</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1>HelloWWW: Simple Applet Test.</H1> <APPLET CODE="HelloWWW.class" WIDTH=400 HEIGHT=40> <B>Error! You must use a Java enabled browser.</B> </APPLET> 26 </BODY> </HTML> Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 13 Basic Hello WWW Applet, cont. • Compiling: javac –target 1.1 HelloWWW.java • Running: Load HelloWWW.html in a Java-enabled browser 27 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com Customizing Applets with PARAM import java.applet.Applet; import java.awt.*; public class Message extends Applet { private int fontSize; private String message; public void init() { setBackground(Color.black); setForeground(Color.white); fontSize = getSize().height - 10; setFont(new Font("SansSerif", Font.BOLD, fontSize)); // Read heading message from PARAM entry in HTML. message = getParameter("MESSAGE"); } public void paint(Graphics g) { if (message != null) g.drawString(message, 5, fontSize+5); } 28 } Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 14 Customizing Applets with PARAM, cont. 29 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>The Message Applet</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY BGCOLOR="WHITE"> <H1>The <CODE>Message</CODE> Applet</H1> <P> <APPLET CODE="Message.class" WIDTH=325 HEIGHT=25> <PARAM NAME="MESSAGE" VALUE="Tiny"> <B>Sorry, these examples require Java</B> </APPLET> <P> <APPLET CODE="Message.class" WIDTH=325 HEIGHT=50> <PARAM NAME="MESSAGE" VALUE="Small"> <B>Sorry, these examples require Java</B> </APPLET> ... </BODY> </HTML> www.corewebprogramming.com Introduction to Java Customizing Applets with PARAM, Result 30 Introduction to Java www.corewebprogramming.com 15 Summary • Java is a complete language, supporting both standalone applications and Web development • Java is complied to bytecode and can be run on any platform that supports a Java Virtual Machine • Java 2 Platform is bundled as a Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition • Most browsers support only JDK 1.1 • Install Java Plug-In for later versions of Java 31 www.corewebprogramming.com Introduction to Java core Web programming Questions? 32 © 2001-2003 Marty Hall, Larry Brown http://www.corewebprogramming.com 16 ...
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