combinations of substances
what causes substance-
The Sociocultural View
The Psychodynamic View
The Behavioral and
The Biological View
how are substance-related
putting it together:
new wrinkles to a
am Duncan. I am an alcoholic.” The audience settled deeper into their chairs at
these familiar words. Another chronicle of death and rebirth would shortly begin
[at] Alcoholics Anonymous.
. . .
. . . “I must have been just past my 15th birthday when I had that first drink that
everybody talks about. And like so many of them .
. . it was like a miracle. With a
little beer in my gut, the world was transformed. I wasn’t a weakling anymore, I
could lick almost anybody on the block. And girls? Well, you can imagine how a
couple of beers made me feel like I could have any girl I wanted.
. . .
“Though it’s obvious to me now that my drinking even then, in high school, and
after I got to college, was a problem, I didn’t think so at the time. After all, every-
body was drinking and getting drunk and acting stupid, and I didn’t really think I
. . . I guess the fact that I hadn’t really had any blackouts and that I
could go for days without having to drink reassured me that things hadn’t gotten
out of control. And that’s the way it went, until I found myself drinking even more—
and more often—and suffering more from my drinking, along about my third year
. . . “My roommate, a friend from high school, started bugging me about my drink-
ing. It wasn’t even that I’d have to sleep it off the whole next day and miss class, it
was that he had begun to hear other friends talking about me, about the fool I’d
made of myself at parties. He saw how shaky I was the morning after, and he saw
how different I was when I’d been drinking a lot—almost out of my head was the
way he put it. And he could count the bottles that I’d leave around the room, and
he knew what the drinking and carousing was doing to my grades. .
. . [P]artly be-
cause I really cared about my roommate and didn’t want to lose him as a friend, I
did cut down on my drinking by half or more. I only drank on weekends—and then
only at night.
. . . And that got me through the rest of college and, actually, through
law school as well.
. . .
“Shortly after getting my law degree, I married my first wife, and .
. . for the first
time since I started, my drinking was no problem at all. I would go for weeks at a
time without touching a drop.