Strayer Docutexts CH 3

Strayer Docutexts CH 3 - Documcnts Considering the...

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Unformatted text preview: Documcnts Considering the Evidence: ' Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt 115 116 CHAPTER 3 / FIRST czvsuzmmms: cmes, STATES, AND UNEQUAL secsEnEs, 3500 B.C.E.~500 B.C.E. The Epic of Gilgamesh ca. 2700 B.C.E.—25oo B.C.E. On‘ Kingship [These first selections deal with the nature of hingship. They tell of the great deeds of Gilgamesh and his oppres- sion 9’ the people as well as recounting the instructions about Ieingship from Enlil, the chief Sumerian god, who is responsible fin determining the destinies (yr humankind. ] Gilgamesh.This was the man to whom all things were known; this was the king who knew the coun— tries of the world. He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale of the days before the flood. He went on a long journey, was weary, worn—out with labor, returning he rested, he engraved on a stone the whole story. When the gods created Gilgamesh they gave him a perfect body. Shamash the glorious sun Source: The Epic (f Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sanders (London: Penguin, 1972), 61—62; 70; 92—93; 101—2; 106—11. made his beauty perfect, surpassing all others, ter— rifying like a great wild bull.Two—thirds they made him god and one—third man. ‘ In Uruk he built walls, a great rampart, and the temple of blessed Eanna for the god of the firma— ment Anu, and for Ishtar the goddess of love. Look at it still today: the outer wall Where the cornice runs, it shines with the brilliance of copper; and the inner wall, it has no equal. Touch the threshold, it is ancient. Approach Eanna the dwelling of Ishtar, our lady of love and war, the like of which no latter- day king, no man alive can equal. Climb upon the wall of Uruk; walk along it, I say; regard the foun— ‘ dation terrace and examine the masonry: is it not burnt brick and good? The seven sages laid the foundations. Gilgamesh went abroad in the world, but he met with none who could withstand his arms till he CONSIDERlNG THE EVIDENCE / DOCUMENTS: LIFE AND AFTERUFE lN MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT 117 came to Uruk. But the men of Uruk muttered in their houses, “Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the king should be a shepherd to his people. His lust leaves no vir— gin to her lover, neither the warrior’s daughter nor the wife of the noble; yet this is the shepherd of the city, wise, comely, and resolute.” kingship, such is your destiny; everlasting life is not your destiny Because of this do not be sad at heart, do not be grieved or oppressed. He has given you power to bind and to loose, to be the darkness and the light of mankind. He has given you unexampled supremacy over the people, victory in battle from Which no fiigitive returns, in forays and assaults from Which there is no going back. But do not abuse this power, deal justly with your servants in the palace, deal justly before Shamash. On the Search for Immortality [As En/eidu lies dying, he tells Gilgamesh Qf a dream he had about the afterly‘ej “[T]his is the dream I dreamed last night. The heavens roared, and earth rumbled back an answer; betWeen them stood I before an awful being, the somber—faced man—bird; he had directed on me his Purpose. His was a vampire face, his foot was a lion’s foot, his hand was an eagle’s talon. He fell on me and his claws were in my hair, he held me fast and I smothered; then he transformed me so that my arms became wings covered with feathers. He turned his stare toward me, and he led me away to the palace of Irkalla, the Queen of Darkness, to the house from which none who enters ever retufnS, down the road from which there is no COInlng back. of dust and I saw the kings of the earth, their crowns put away for ever; rulers and princes, all those who once wore kingly crowns and ruled the world in the days of old. They who had stood in the place of the gods like Anu and Enlil, stood now like servants to fetch baked meats in the house of dust, to carry cooked meat and cold water from the water—skin. In the house of dust which I entered were high priests and acolytes, priests of the incan— tation and of ecstasy...Then I awoke like a man drained of blood who wanders alone in a waste of rushes.” [When Gilgamesh in his quest for immortality meets Siduri, the tavern keeper, he confesses to her his fear and anguish, and receives some wise counsel in return. ] “[M]y friend who was very dear to me and who endured dangers beside me, Enkidu my brother, whom I loved, the end of mortality has overtaken him. I wept for him seven days and nights till the worm fastened to him. Because of my brother I am afraid of death, because of my brother I stray through the wilderness and cannot rest. But now, young woman, maker of wine, since I have seen your face do not let me see the face of death which I dread so much.” She answered, “Gilgamesh, where are you hur— rying to? You will never find that life for which you are looking. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping. As for you, Gilgamesh, fill your belly with good things; day and night, night and day, dance and be merry, feast and rejoice. Let your clothes be fresh, bathe yourself in water, cherish the little child that holds your hand, and make your Wife happy in your embrace; for this too is the lot of man.” [Later when Gilgamesh reaches Utnapishtim, the only man to survive the great flood and receive eternal life from the gods, he hears a similar message] Utnapishtim said, “There is no permanence. Do we build a house to stand forever, do we seal a con— tract to hold for all time? Do brothers divide an inheritance to keep forever, does the flood—time of rivers endureP... From the days of old there is no permanence. The sleeping and the dead, how alike they are, they are like a painted death.What is there between the master and the servant when both “With the first light of dawn a black cloud have fulfilled their doom? When the Anunnaki, the came from the horizon; it thundered within where judges, come together, and Mammetun the mother Adad, lord of the storm, was riding. In front over of destinies, together they decree the fates of men. hill and plain Shullat and Hanish, heralds of the Life and death they allot but the day of death they storm, led on. Then the gods of the abyss rose up; do not disclose.” Nergal pulled out the dams of the nether waters, Ninurta the war—lord threw down the dykes, and the seven judges of hell, the Annunaki, raised their On the Gods torches, lighting the land with their livid flame.A stupor of despair went up to heaven when the god something about the nature (yr Mesopotamian gods and 0f the Storm turned dayhght to darkness’ When he the origins Qf the great flood, which ages ago had destroyed smaShed the land 11k? a cup' or.” WhOIé day the humankind ] tempest raged, gathering fury as it went, 1t poured V over the people like the tides of battle; a man could “You know the city Shurrupak, it stands on the not see his brother nor the people be seen from banks of the Euphrates? That city grew old and the heaven. Even the gods were terrified at the flood, the world bellowed like a wild bull, and the great why did I command this evil in the council of all god was aroused by the clamor. Enlil heard the the gods? I commanded wars to destroy the people, clamor and he said to the gods in council, ‘The but are they not my people, for I brought them uproar of mankind is intolerable and sleep is no forth? Now like the spawn of fish they float in the longer possible by reason of the babel.’ So the gods ocean.’ The great gods of heaven and of hell wept, agreed to exterminate mankind. . .. they covered their mouths.” Document 3.2 CONSIDERING THE EVIDENCE / DOCUMENTS: LIFE AND AFTERLIFE 1N MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT 11 I What can you infer from the code about the kind of social problems that afflicted ancient Mesopotamia? Hammurabi’s code? In what different ways might twenty—first— century observers and those living at the time of Hammurabi assess that system of justice? I How did the code seek to realize the aims ofHammurabi as described above? The Law Code of Hammurabi ca. 1800 B.C.E. On Crime, Punishment, and Justice from the judge’s bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgment. . .. 22. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. . .. 196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. 197. If he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken. . .. 2. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take posses— sion of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he Who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.... On the Economy 3. If any one bring an accusation of any crime . . . before the elders, and does not prove what he has 26‘ Ifa Chleflam or a man [common SOldlerJ’ Wh( . . . has been ordered to o u on the kin ’3 hi hwa‘ Charged, he Shall, If“ be a capltal Offense Chargéd’ for war does not 0 iut hires a mercina gif hi be Put to death. . .. g ’ FY, withholds the compensation, then shall this office or man be put to death, and he who representei him shall take possession of his house. . .. S. If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and Present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by im in th ' 6 case, and he shall be publicly remOVed takes possession of his house, garden, and field an uses it for three years: if the first OWner return an \ claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not b Source: The Code quammurabi, tranSIated by LW King, given to him, but he who has taken possession of 1915' and used it shall continue to use it. . .. 120 CHAPTER 3 / HRST cmmzarzoms: cam—:5, STATES, AND UNEQUAL 50015155. 3500 B.C.E.~5oe .53.“, 53. If any one be too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be flooded, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the corn which he has caused to be ruined. . .. 104. If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefore. Then he shall obtain a receipt from the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant. . . . 122. If any one give another silver, gold, or any— thing else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract, and then hand it over for safe keeping. . .. 229. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death. . .. 253. If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off. . .. 271. If any one hire oxen, cart, and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day. . .. On Class and Slavery 8. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefore; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay, he shall be put to death. . .. 15. If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, out— side the city gates, he shall be put to death. . .. 17. If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver. . .. 117. If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free. . .. 198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina. 199. If he put out the eye of a man’s slave, or break the bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay one- half of its value. . .. 202. If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox—whip in public. . .. 215. If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife and cure it, or if he open a tumor [over the eye] with an operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive ten shekels in money. 216. If the patient be a freed man, he receives five shekels. 217. If he be the slave of some one, his OWner shall give the physician two shekels. . .. On Men and Women 110. If a “sister of a god” [a woman formally dedi- cated to the temple of a god] open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death. . .. 128. If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him. 129. If a man’s wife be surprised with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves. 130. If a man Violate the wife [betrothed wife or child—Wife] of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father’s house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless. 131. If a man bring a charge against one’s wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house. 132. If the “finger is pointed” at a man’s wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for her husband. . .. 65 CI JSt ife “g 761' CGNSlflERlNG THE EVRBENICE / DCCUMENTS: Lif-E AND AFTERLIFE lN MESQEOTANHA AND EGYPT 121 I36. If any one leave his house, run away, and then his wife go to another house, if then he return, and wishes to take his wife back: because he fled from his home and ran away, the wife of this runaway shall not return to her husband. 137. If a man wish to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct [the right to use] of field, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children.When she has brought up her children... she may then marry the man of her heart. . .. 142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say:“You are not congenial to me,” the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father’s house. 143. If she is not innocent, but leaves her hus— band, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast into the water. . .. 148. If a man take a wife, and she be seized by disease, if he then desire to take a second wife, he shall not put away his wife who has been attacked by disease, but he shall keep her in the house which he has built and support her so long as she lives. Document 3.3 The Afterlife of a Pharaoh Egyptian thinking about life, death, and afterlife bears comparison with that of Mesopotamia. In the selections that follow, we catch a glimpse of several Egyptian ways of understanding these fundamental human concerns.The first excerpt comes from a group of so—called pyramid texts, inscribed on the walls of a royal tomb as spells, incantations, or prayers to assist the pharaoh in enter— ing the realm of eternal life among the gods in the Land of the West.This one was discovered in the tomb of the Egyptian king Teti, who ruled between roughly 2345 and 23 3 3 B.C.E. Such texts represent the oldest religious writings in world history. I How is the afterlife of the pharaoh represented in this text? I How does it compare with depictions of the afterlife in the Epic of Gilgamesh? A Pyramid Text 2333 B.C.E. Ohol Oho! Rise up, 0 Teti! Take your head, collect your bones, \ SourCCC Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (Bfirkeley: University of California Press, 1975), I141‘42. Gather your limbs, shake the earth from your flesh! Take your bread that rots not, your beer that sours not, Stand at the gates that bar the common people! The gatekeeper comes out to you, he grasps your hand, 122 CHAPTER 3 / FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: CITIES, STATES, AND UNEQUAL SOCIETIES, 3500 B.C.E.—'SOO 81.5. Takes you into heaven, to you father Geb. Barley is threshed for you, He rejoices at your coming, gives you his hands, Emmer° is reaped for you, Kisses you, caresses you, Your monthly feasts are made with it, Sets you before the spirits, the imperishable Your half—month feasts are made with it, stars. . .. As ordered done for you by Geb, your father, The hidden ones worship you, Rise up, 0 Teti, you shall not die! The great ones surround you, The watchers wait on you, oEmmet: a variety of wheat Document 3.4 A New Basis for Egyptian Immortality Much later, during the New Kingdom period of ancient Egyptian history (1550—1064 B.C.E.), the Boole of the Dead was compiled, gathering together a number of magical spells designed to ensure a smooth passage to eternal life. Written on papyrus, the spells could be purchased by anyone who could afford them.The owner then inscribed his own name and title and had the document placed in his tomb. The most famous of these texts is the so—called Negative Confession, which portrays the deceased person appearing before the gods in a place of judgment to demonstrate his moral life and his fitness for a place in the Land of the West. Such practices extended to people other than just the pharaoh the possibility of magical assistance in gaining eternal life with the gods. I What changes in Egyptian religious thinking does the Negative Confession mark? I On what basis are the users of the Negative Confession making their claim for eternal life? I What does the Negative Confession suggest about the sources of con— flict and discord in New Kingdom Egypt? How do these compare with the social problems revealed in the Code of Hammurabi? Boole of the Dead ca. 1550—1064 B.C.E. When the deceased enters the hall of the goddesses of myselfhither that I may see thy beauties. I know thee, Truth, he says: I know thy name. I know the names of the Two— Homage to thee, 0 great god, thou Lord of Truth. and—Forty gods who live with thee in this Hall of I have come to thee, my Lord, and I have brought Maati. In truth I have come to thee. I have brought Truth to thee. I have destroyed wickedness for thee. ' Source: EA. Wallis Budge, Osiris, the Egyptian Religion of Resurrection (London: P. L.Warner; NewYork: G. P. I have not sinned against men. Putnam’s Sons, 1911), 1:3 37—39. I have not oppressed (or wronged) [my] kinsfolk. CONSIDERING THE EVIDENCE / DOCUMENTS: LIFE AND AFTERLIFE IN MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT I have not committed evil in of truth.° god of my city. : I have not known worthless men. the place I have not cheated in measuring of grain I have not committed acts of abomination. I have not filched land or added thereto. j-I have not caused my name to appear for honors. I have not encroached upon the fields of others I have not domineered over slaves. I have not added to the weight of the balance TI have not thought scorn of the god. ' I have not defrauded th 124 CHAPTER 3/ FIRST ClVlLlZATlONS: CITIES, STATES, AND UNEQUAL SOClETlES, 3500 B.C.E.‘“SOO 81;]; Be a Scribe ca. 2066—1650 B.C.E. Apply yourself to [this] noble profession. . . .You will find it useful... . You will be advanced by your superiors. You will be sent on a mission....Love writing, shun dancing; then you become a worthy official. . . . By day write with your fingers; recite by night. Befriend the scroll, the palette. It pleases more than wine. Writing for him who knows it is better than all other professions. It pleases more than bread and beer, more than clothing and ointment. It is worth more than an inheritance in Egypt, than a tomb in the west. Young fellow, how conceited you are!...But though I beat you with every kind of stick, you do not listen....You are a person fit for writing, though you have not yet known a woman.Your heart discerns, your fingers are skilled, your mouth is apt for reciting... . But though I spend the day telling you “Write,” it seems like a plague to you. . .. See for yourself with your own eye. The occu— pations lie before you. The washerman’s day is going up, going down. All his limbs are weak, [from] whitening his neigh— bor’s clothes every day, from washing their linen. The maker of pots is smeared with soil. . .. [H]e is like one who lives in the bog. The cobbler mingles with vats. His odor is pen— etrating. His hands are red. . . , like one who is smeared with blood. . . . The watchman prepares garlands and polishes vase-stands. He spends a night of toil just as one on whom the sun shines. The merchants travel downstream and upstream. They are as busy as can be, carrying goods from one town to another. They supply him who has wants. But the tax collectors carry off the gold, that most precious of metals. Source: Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 22168—72. The ships’ crews from every house [of comr merce], they receive their loads. They depart from Egypt for Syria, and each man’s god is with him. [But] not one of them says: “We shall see Egypt again!” [The] outworker who is in the fields, his is the toughest of all the jobs. He spends the day loaded With his tools, tied to his toolbox. When he returns home at night, he is loaded With the tool- box and the timbers, his drinking mug, and his whetstones. . .. Let me also expound to you the situation of the peasant, that other tough occupation. [Comes] the inundation and soaks him. . . ,he attends to his equip- ment. By day he cuts his farming tools; by night he twists rope. Even his midday hour he spends on farm labor. He equips himself to go to the field as if he were a warrior....When he reaches his field he finds [it?] broken up. He spends time cultivating, and the snake is after him. It finishes off the seed as it is cast to the ground. He does not see a green ' blade. He does three plowings with borrowed grain. His wife has gone down to the merchants and found nothing for barter. . .. If you have any sense, be a scribe. If you have learned about the peasant, you will not be able to be one. . . . Look, I instruct you to... make you become one whom the king trusts; to make you gain entrance to treasury and granary. To make you receive the shipload at the gate of the granary. To make you issue the oEerings on feast days.You are _ dressed in fine clothes; you own horses.Your boat is on the river; you are supplied with attendants. You stride about inspecting. A mansion is built in 7 your town.You have a powerful office, given you by the king. Male and female slaves are about you. 7 Those who are in the fields grasp your hand, on plots that you have made....Put the writings in your heart, and you will be protected from all kinds ‘ of toil.You will become a worthy official. Do you not recall the [fate of] the unskilled man? His name is not known. He is ever burdened ' CONSIDERING THE EVIDENCE / DOCUMENTS: LIFE AND AFTERUFE iN MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT 125 [like an ass carrying things] in front of the scribe uphill through mountains. He drinks water every E who knows what he is about. third day; it is smelly and tastes of salt. His body is : Come, [let me tell] you the woes of the soldier, ravaged by illness. The enemy comes, surrounds l and how many are his superiors: the general, the him with missiles, and life recedes from him. He is troop—commander, the officer who leads, the told: “Quick, forward, valiant soldier! Win for standard-bearer, the lieutenant, the scribe, the com— yourself a good name!” He does not know what he . mander of fifty, and the garrison—captain. They go is about. His body is weak, his legs fail him.When in and out in the halls of the palace, saying: “Get victory is won, the captives are handed over to his laborers!” He is awakened at any hour. One is after majesty, to be taken to Egypt. . . .His wife and chil— ' him as [after] a donkey. He toils until the Aten sets dren are in their village; he dies and does not reach ' in his darkness of night. He is hungry, his belly it. If he comes out alive, he is worn out from hurts; he is dead while yet alive. When he receives marching. . .. . 1 the grain—ration, having been released from duty, it Be a scribe, and be spared from soldiering! You r' is not good for grinding. call and one says: “Here I am.”You are safe from He is called up for Syria. He may not rest. torments.Every man seeks to raise himself up.Take 1 There are no clothes, no sandals....His march is note of it! , -~\\\\ Using the Evidence: Life and Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt M Vi5ual Sources Considering the Evidence: Indus Valley Civilization ‘|::l’ n most accounts of the First Civilizations, Egypt and Mesopotamia hold Icenter stage. And yet the civilization of the Indus River valley was much larger, and its archeological treasures have been equally impressive, though clearly distinctive (see pp. 86—91).This civilization arose around 2600 B.C.E., about a thousand years later than its better—known counterparts in the Middle East and North Africa. By 1500 B.C.E. Indus Valley civilization was in decline, as the center of Indian or South Asian civilization shifted gradually eastward to the plains of the Ganges River. In the process, all distinct memory of the earlier Indus Valley civilization vanished, to be rediscovered only in the early twentieth century as archeologists uncovered its remarkable remains. Here is yet another contrast with Egypt and Mesopotamia, where a memory of earlier Among the most distinctive elements of Indus Valley civilization were its cities, of which Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the largest and are the most thor¥ oughly investigated. Laid out systematically on a grid pattern and clearly planned, they were surrounded by substantial walls made from mud bricks of a standard— ized size and interrupted by imposing gateways. Inside the walls, public build— ' ings, market areas, large and small houses, and crafi workshops stood in each of I Based on these images, how would you describe an Indus Valley city to someone who had never seen it? I Compare these images of Indus Valley cities with those of the early agrarian village of Catalhiiyiik (see the photo on p. 64 andVisual 126 CONSlDERlNG THE EVIDENCE / VISUAL SOURCES :iNDUS VALLEY ClViLlZATION 127 Source 2.1 on p. 77).What differences can you identify between these two types of settlements? What had changed in the intervening centuries? I What meaning might you attach to the use of animals as totems or symbols of a particular group or individual? 128 CHAPTER 3 / HRST CIVILIZATlONS: ClTlES, STATES, AND UNEQUAL SOCEETlES, 3500 ELLE—500 SALE, Visual Source 3.2 A Seal from the Indus Valley (J. Mark Kenoyer/Harappa Images) I Notice the five characters of the Indus Valley script at the top of the seal. Do a little research on the script with an eye to understanding why it has proved so difficult to decipher. The most intriguing features of Indus Valley civilization involve what is missing, at least in comparison with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia..No grand temples or palaces; no elite burial places filled with great wealth; no images of warfare, conquest, or the seizing of captives; no monuments to cele— brate powerful rulers. These absences have left scholars guessing about the social and political organization of this civilization. Kenoyer has suggested that the great cities were likely controlled not by a single ruler, but by “a small group of elites, comprised of merchants, landowners, and ritual specialists.”32 Visual Source 3.3, a statue seven inches tall and found in Mohenjo Daro, likely depicts one of these elite men. I What specific features of the statue can you point out? I What possible indication of elite status can you identify? I What overall impression does the statue convey? d Museums, Visual Source 3 3 Man from Mohenjo Daro (Department OfArchanIOgy an Karachi, Pakistan) 129 CONSIDERING THE EVIDENCE / VISUAL SOURCES: lNDUS VALLEY ClViLiZATiON 131 Although no one really knows her precise identity, she has evoked wide admiration and appreciation. Mortimer Wheeler, a famous British archeolo— gist, described her as “a girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world.”American archeologist Gregory Possehl, also active in the archeology of the Indus Valley civilization, commented: “We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it.”33 I What features of this statue may have provoked such observations? I How do you react to this statue? What qualities does she evoke? I What does Visual Source 3.4 suggest about views of women, images of female beauty, and attitudes about sexuality and the body? Using the Evidence: Indus Valley Civilization 1. Using art as evidence: What can we learn about IndusValley civilization from these visual sources? How does our level of understanding of this civilization differ from that of Egypt and Mesopotamia where plentiful written records are available? 2. Considering art without writing: Based on these visual sources and those in Chapters I and 2, consider the problem of interpreting history through art, artifacts, or archeological sites in the absence of writing.What can we know with some certainty? What can we only guess at? 3. Comparing art across time: How would you compare the rock art of Australian Paleolithic peoples (Chapter I), the art of early agricultural and pastoral peoples (Chapter 2), and the art from the IndusValley? Consider issues of style, content, and accessibility to people of the twenty—first cen— tury. Is it possible to speak of artistic “progress” or “development,” or should we be content with simply noticing differences? 4. Comparing representations of people: Notice the various ways that human figures were portrayed in the visual sources shown in Chapters 1—3. How might you define those differences?What variations in the depiction of men and women can you identify? 5. Seeking further evidence: What additional kinds of archeological dis— coveries would be helpfiil in furthering our understanding of IndusValley civilization? ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course IHUM 69 taught by Professor Morris during the Winter '10 term at Stanford.

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Strayer Docutexts CH 3 - Documcnts Considering the...

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