NodeAnalysis7Ed - ODALANDLOOPANALYSISTECHNIQUES...

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NODAL AND LOOP ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES LEARNING GOALS CIRCUITS WITH OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Develop systematic techniques to determine all the voltages and currents in a circuit NODAL  ANALYSIS LOOP  ANALYSIS Op-amps are very important devices, widely available, that permit the design of very useful circuit… and they can be modeled by circuits with dependent sourc
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NODE ANALYSIS One of the systematic ways to  determine every voltage and  current in a circuit The variables used  to describe the circuit will be “Node Voltages”  -- The voltages of each node with respect to a pre-selected      reference node
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IT IS INSTRUCTIVE TO START THE PRESENTATION WITH A RECAP OF A PROBLEM SOLVED BEFORE USING SERIES/ PARALLEL RESISTOR COMBINATIONS COMPUTE ALL THE VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS IN THIS CIRCUIT
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SECOND: “BACKTRACK” USING KVL, KCL OHM’S k V I a 6 2 =    : S OHM' 1 3 2 KCL: I I I = - 4 3 4 * 4 12 4 12 I k V I I b = + = 5 3 4 5 * 3 0 I k V I I I C = = - +    : S OHM'    : KCL k 12 k k 12 || 4 k 6 k k 6 || 6 k V I 12 12 1 = ) 12 ( 9 3 3 + = a V 3 I IRST REDUCE TO A SINGLE LOOP CIRCUIT
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THE NODE ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVE THERE ARE FIVE NODES.   IF ONE NODE IS SELECTED AS  REFERENCE THEN THERE ARE FOUR VOLTAGES WITH RESPECT TO THE REFERENCE NODE HEOREM: IF ALL NODE VOLTAGES WITH ESPECT TO A COMMON REFERENCE NODE RE KNOWN THEN ONE CAN DETERMINE  NY OTHER ELECTRICAL VARIABLE FOR HE CIRCUIT a S a S V V V V V V - = = + + - 1 1 0 b a b a V V V V V V - = = + + - 3 3 0 ______ = ca V QUESTION DRILL  REFERENCE a V b V c V KVL KVL WHAT IS THE PATTERN??? KVL 0 5 = + - - b c V V V ONCE THE VOLTAGES ARE  KNOWN THE CURRENTS CAN BE COMPUTED USING OHM’S LAW A GENERAL VIEW - + R v N m R v v v - = 5 c b V V V = -
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E REFERENCE DIRECTION FOR CURRENTS IS IRRELEVANT ' i - + R v ING THE LEFT-RIGHT  REFERENCE DIRECTION E VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS THE RESISTOR MUST VE THE POLARITY SHOWN R v v i N m - =    LAW    S OHM' IF THE CURRENT REFERENCE DIRECTION IS  REVERSED . .. + - ' R v THE PASSIVE SIGN CONVENTION WILL ASSIG THE REVERSE REFERENCE POLARITY TO THE  VOLTAGE ACROSS THE RESISTOR R v v i m N - = ' LAW   S OHM' ' i i - = PASSIVE SIGN CONVENTION RULES!
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DEFINING THE REFERENCE NODE IS VITAL S MEANINGLES   IS 4V       V STATEMENT   THE 1 = UNTIL THE REFERENCE POINT IS DEFINED BY CONVENTION THE GROUND SYMBOL SPECIFIES THE REFERENCE POINT. - + V 4 ALL NODE VOLTAGES ARE MEASURED WITH RESPECT TO THAT REFERENCE POINT + - V 2 _____? 12 = V - + 12 V
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THE STRATEGY FOR NODE ANALYSIS 1. IDENTIFY ALL NODES AND SELECT    A REFERENCE NODE 2. IDENTIFY KNOWN NODE VOLTAGES 3. AT EACH NODE WITH UNKNOWN     VOLTAGE WRITE A KCL EQUATION (e.g.,SUM OF CURRENT LEAVING =0) 0 : @ 3 2 1 = + + - I I I V a 4. REPLACE CURRENTS IN TERMS OF 
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NodeAnalysis7Ed - ODALANDLOOPANALYSISTECHNIQUES...

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