Chapter 09.pe

Chapter 09.pe - Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams &...

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Unformatted text preview: Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Chapter 9 Antibiotics Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Antibiotics Antibiotics are defined as: Chemicals that inhibit specific bacteria Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Types of Antibiotics Bacteriostatic Substances that prevent the growth of bacteria Bactericidal Substances that kill bacteria directly Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Signs of Infection Fever Lethargy Slow-wave sleep induction Classic signs of inflammation (redness, swelling, heat, and pain) Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Goal of Antibiotic Therapy Decrease the population of the invading bacteria to a point where the human immune system can effectively deal with the invaders Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Selecting Treatment Identification of the causative organism Based on the culture report, an antibiotic is chosen that is known to be effective at treating the invading organism Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Bacteria Classification Gram-positive The cell wall retains a stain or resists decolorization with alcohol Gram-negative The cell wall loses a stain or is decolorized by alcohol Aerobic Depend on oxygen for survival Anaerobic Do not use oxygen Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Aminoglycosides A group of powerful antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli Common medications: Amikacin ( Amikin ) Gentamicin ( Garamycin ) Kanamycin ( Kantrex ) Neomycin ( Mycifradin ) Streptomycin Tobramycin ( Nebcin, Tobrex ) Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Aminoglycosides (cont.) Bactericidal Indications: treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible bacteria Action: inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria causing cell death Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Aminoglycosides (cont.) Pharmacokinetics Poorly absorbed from the GI tract but rapidly absorbed after IM injection, reaching peak levels within 1 hour Widely distributed throughout the body, crossing the placenta and entering breast milk Excreted unchanged in the urine and have an average half-life of 2 to 3 hours Depend on the kidney for excretion and are toxic to the kidney Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins....
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course PHARM 101 taught by Professor Lyse during the Spring '12 term at HCCS.

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Chapter 09.pe - Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams &...

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