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Lecture 2 - Jan 6th - Jan 6th 2011 215 Thomas Hobbes Human...

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Thomas Hobbes - Human Nature - subjectivity- mechanism - is there an external reality and if so how can we discover it through the subjectivity of our mind? - “objects agitating internal substance of the brain”: external world hit our senses which give rise to our perception and senses - mind is separated as “cognitive”and “motive” - Renee Descartes would have refereed to cognitive as mind and motive as emotion - contiguity as fabric of coherence; Aristotle spoke about association; things that co-occur will stick together better leading to coherence - “either to draw near the things that pleas, which is called appetite, or to retire from the thing that displeases which is called aversion”: we are drawn to positive things and we are averted to those negative things; therefore he characterized them into appetite and etc - “there is nothing without us which we call an image or a colour” John Locke - an essay concerning Human Understanding - influenced by Newton - he does not deal with physiological aspects he only deals with what is going on in your head; perception, knowledge and understanding - he puts aside how it got there in the first place - argued against “innate ideas”; people before felt that there was this innate idea that G-d gave you all these notions and ideas - Lock rejected that idea and felt that we were a blank slate - “Let us supposed the mind to be white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be furnished? To this I answer in one word, from experience” - primary and secondary perception - matter and motion = primary perception (external reality) - odours, colours, taste, and sounds = secondary perception George Berkley - principles of human knowledge - argued against Lockes distinction between primary and secondary perception; how can we think of an apple without thinking of red - impossible to conceive of primary characteristics without secondary - no valid psychological distinction could be drawn between primary and secondary - everything in your mind is a complete “construction” of some undefinable external reality Norman Triplett - 1897; birth of social psychology - observer effects on performance - Cyclists raced faster when observers were present; therefore social aspect to actions; why? Jan 6th, 2011; 215
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- as soon as we start asking why, the answers lead us to develop theories about why the effect is caused - science is not demonstrating that the effect occurs but it is the answer to the why question that leads down the science pathway - maybe human beings feel a sense of evaluation when they are being observed so they respond by cycling faster - how would we test this theory? compare cyclists performing with or without audience; develop a measure to ask people wether they felt they were being evaluated when watched - manipulating environment technique (have control of variables) and inner
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