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Lecture 16 - March 8th - 215 March 8th 2011 Chapter 8 Group...

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Chapter 8 - Group Processes - hockey teams win more often when they are at home - something about being with your friends? What is a Group? - a set of individuals who have at least one of the following characteristics - direct interactions with each other over a period of time - joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes - a shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals What is a Collective? - an assembly of people engaging in a common activity but having little direct interaction with each other - not a real group - some social psycholopgical processes are unique to real groups - however, others affect both groups and collectives Group Behavior - a lot of people during the 70’s came into Canada to avoid the draft so all these draft dodgers were teaching CGEP... - the intelligence quotient of a group can be calculated by taking the intelligence quotient of the group leader and dividing it by the number of people in the group” - brother Bertley, 1973 - apparently he had been in a mental institution for treatment at one point... anyway he said this really profound thing Norman Triplett - interested in observe effects on performance - 1897 - cyclists raced faster when observers were present (vs practicing at home) - he devised an experiment to test it Social Facilitation: When Others Arose us - how does the presence of others affect our behavior? - Triplett’s (1897 - 1898) finished reel studies (wanted to see how fast children twirl their fishing reels when people are there or not). He found they were faster when people around - later research found conflicting findings: - sometimes the presence of others enhanced performance - at other times, performance declined - WHY?? 215: March 8th, 2011
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Certain types of tasks that seem to require a lot of concentration and these tasks with other people around cheering you around does not necessarily help your performance. ex. watching people play billiard (it is important that everything is quiet). When Tiger Woods is putting no one speaks or cheers him on because it would impede his performance. In other types of things (ex. running) cheering them on is not distracting and is really arousing! - Zajonc proposed this model and said that in the presence of others it gives rise to social facilitation (not necessarily facilitate your performance but it will facilitate the performance of your most dominant response: this is the most easily elicited response). IF you put someone in the same place that you are in when you are performing it will arouse you and either help or not help you.. (depending on the task). If it is an easy task then the social presence aids and if it is a hard task it is better to be alone.
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