Review- 6,7,9,10

Review- 6,7,9,10 - CHAPTER6 LEARNING

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CHAPTER 6 ‐ LEARNING Classical Conditioning: learning that 2 events “go together”. Operant Conditioning: learning that a behavior will lead to a certain outcome. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) : stimulus that elicits a reflex response (no learning required). Conditioned Stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits a response only AFTER learning has occurred. Unconditioned Response (UR): response that does not require learning. Conditioned Response (CR): response that has been learned. 1
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Example of classical conditioning Food (US) will cause salivation (UR) in a dog Pairing a neutral stimulus, like a bell (CS) with food (US) for multiple conditioning trials bell alone will elicit salivation (CR) in critical trials Acquisition : the process by which the CS is associated with the US (pairing bell and food). NOTE: the strongest association occurs when the CS is presented slightly before the US, because it acts as a predictor. The CS “warns you” of an upcoming US. Extinction : the CS is no longer paired with the US. Therefore, the CR disappears Spontaneous recovery : the extinguished CS once again produces a CR. But this is temporary Generalization : occurs when stimuli similar to the CS (but not the same) elicit the CR. This is adaptive Discrimination : occurs when stimuli that are similar to the CS don’t elicit the CR. 2 nd order conditioning : occurs in 2 steps. 1‐ you learn to associate a CS with a US very well (bell‐food). 2‐ the CS now becomes the US for a second CS (tone‐ bell). Note that “tone” will elicit salivation even though has never been associated with food! 2
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Operant Conditioning Shaping : reinforcing successive approximations eventually leads to the desired behavior Law of effect : outcome of behavior influences likelihood that it will occur again in the future. 3
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Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinf : appropriate behavior is reinforced EVERY time Partial reinf : appropriate behavior is reinforced some of the time (table) 4
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Latent Learning Learning that takes place in the ABSENCE of reward. Tolman’s study proves that just because there are no VISIBLE signs of learning (no increase in performance), the rats are still learning. Therefore, we cannot always assume that performance on a task is an adequate measurement of learning. 5
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Biological basis of learning When learning occurs, the Nucleus Accumbens releases Dopamine (pleasure/reward system of the brain). Same for drug consumption. Long‐term potentiation (LTP) : mechanism in which learning new info strengthens connections between neurons. Habituation : ↓ response when stimulus is presented too many times Sensitization : ↑ response when stimulus is threatening 6
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CHAPTER 7 ATTENTION AND MEMORY Visual attention: searching for one feature fast; conjunction task serial and effortful Auditory attention: selective hearing Change blindness: when we are blind to large changes in our environment
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Fountain,m during the Spring '10 term at McGill.

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Review- 6,7,9,10 - CHAPTER6 LEARNING

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