Lecture 3 - Jan 13th

Lecture 3 - Jan 13th - *Super important to read the...

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*Super important to read the textbook Last Class -Cognitive neuroscience Definition -The relationship between mind and brain -Methods of cognitive neuroscience -Assumptions underlying cognitive neuroscience Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience Five classes of methods. Not mutually exclusive, many people combine these to answer certain questions. Range covered from cellular structure and function, to high activity brain activity: Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Lesion studies and Neurology Functional neuroimaging Behavioural methods Neuroanatomy (Postmortem) Study of the parts of the nervous system SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT -Gross neuroanatomy (general structures) -brain is comprised of sub-cortical (white matter - axons of neurons- deeper matter into the brain) and cortical structures (grey matter) -some sub-cortical structures are very important for cognition and perception, and they are generally considered to be “older” biologically (evolutionary) -Lobes of the brain -Occipital Lobe (back of head) - vision and visual processing -Temporal Lobe (above ears) - high level visual processing, hearing, etc structure, etc -Frontal Lobe (front of head) - size does matter (largest of any primates), think and make decisions -Cortical matter connected to the corpus callosum -Fine neuroanatomy (individual neurons) -neurons are found in specific parts of the brain -important to understand links and pathways between neurons (done by using tracers) - tracing thought processes, etc -new MRI that allows to look at connectivity between structures Neurophysiology (InVivo-Invasive) Measuring and manipulating neuronal activity -uses electrodes because the brain uses electrical signals Types of electrodes: Recording and Stimulating -stimulate electrical tissue, or record what’s happening -very invasive (drive electrode into the brain, and record different parts)
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Dr. Penfield - mapped out the somatosensory cortex for neurons -he discovered (when operating on patients) that he stimulated different parts of the brain that people got different experiences -figured out that the brain is highly specialized Macroelectrodes : region/population of cells -recording the population of cells -sit on top of the brain and record activity Microelectrodes : single cell -when a stimulus matches the receptive fields/cells in the brain, the neurons are firing at a quicker(?) rate -specialization for certain types of stimuli -leads to great advances in the understanding of our perceptions in the Superior Collilulus (has specialized neurons that respond to stimuli with both auditory and visual properties) -when both visual and auditory stimuli are sent together, the superior collilulus cells fire a lot and much quicker -lots of research on multi-sensory integration (these neurons play a large role of our perceptions of multi-stimuli in our environment)
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course PSYC 213 taught by Professor Levitin during the Winter '08 term at McGill.

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Lecture 3 - Jan 13th - *Super important to read the...

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