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Lecture 8 - Feb 2

Lecture 8 - Feb 2 - Memory Traces and Schemas...

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Memory Traces and Schemas Memory= large field in cognitive psychology Overview -Definingmemory -Historical perspectives -Memorymetaphors -Trace vs. Schema -MemorySchemas Defining Memory -An intuitive mechanism -Study of how we encode, retrieve and retain past information, and how we remember future events. It is also a study of how we forget. encode = learn,assimilate info retrieve = remember information retain = how memory is stores Hermann Ebbinghaus ( 1885 ) “Father of memory” -first person to try to study memory experimentally -association of how two events become linked -Experimental method: Nonsense syllable method (HUN VRA MAG ZOF GTA) -test random syllables, and how they’dbe remembered laterin time How do we memorize meaningless, novel stimuli? -Varied: List Length (b) Retention Interval (c) Typeof memorization method Developed the famous “Forgetting Curve” SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT -same resultif we were to repeat these experiments today Curvedrops of dramatically with time. Immediate recall is the best, then after -Established: Memorycanbe studied experimentally Difficulty varies disproportionately with list length Amount of retention depends on the degree of initial learning (levelsof processing) -If you, at the initial learning phase memorize items superficially, the end resultin retention will not be very high. If you try to analyze on a deep level (connection, meaning, etc) the resultis high retention. -Directapplication to learning Retention is better if studying is distributed -The end resultwill be high retention if you distribute your ‘learning’ MemoryMetaphors -Most metaphors describe memory in terms of physical space
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