Lecture 8 - Feb 2

Lecture 8 - Feb 2 - Memory Traces and Schemas...

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Memory Traces and Schemas Memory = large field in cognitive psychology Overview -Defining memory -Historical perspectives -Memory metaphors -Trace vs. Schema -Memory Schemas Defining Memory -An intuitive mechanism -Study of how we encode, retrieve and retain past information, and how we remember future events. It is also a study of how we forget. encode = learn, assimilate info retrieve = remember information retain = how memory is stores Hermann Ebbinghaus ( 1885 ) “Father of memory” -first person to try to study memory experimentally -association of how two events become linked -Experimental method: Nonsense syllable method (HUN VRA MAG ZOF GTA) -test random syllables, and how they’d be remembered later in time How do we memorize meaningless, novel stimuli? -Varied: List Length (b) Retention Interval (c) Type of memorization method Developed the famous “Forgetting Curve” SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT -same result if we were to repeat these experiments today Curve drops of dramatically with time. Immediate recall is the best, then after -Established: Memory can be studied experimentally Difficulty varies disproportionately with list length Amount of retention depends on the degree of initial learning (levels of processing) -If you, at the initial learning phase memorize items superficially, the end result in retention will not be very high. If you try to analyze on a deep level (connection, meaning, etc) the result is high retention. -Direct application to learning Retention is better if studying is distributed -The end result will be high retention if you distribute your ‘learning’ Memory Metaphors -Most metaphors describe memory in terms of physical space
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course PSYC 213 taught by Professor Levitin during the Winter '08 term at McGill.

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Lecture 8 - Feb 2 - Memory Traces and Schemas...

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