Exam2%20Notes%20Version%20A%20Prelim%20Review

Exam2%20Notes%20Version%20A%20Prelim%20Review - Combined...

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Unformatted text preview: Combined Notes Chapters 06-08 VERSION A Spring 2012 These will be further reduced by deleting a few details 06 Chap 06 An Overview of the Primates Student View I. Introduction Primates: members of order primates II. PRIMATE CHARACTERISTICS Generalized: not specialized General tendencies overall characteristics primate group as whole A. Limbs and Locomotion Limbs: flexible Prehensile hands Opposable thumb Nails Locomotion (essentially quadrupedal ) Discussed later slides B. Diet and Teeth Omnivorous: mixed diet Generalized dentition: teeth no specialized C. The Senses and the Brain Stereoscopic vision Smell: reduced Brain: larger D. Maturation, Learning, and Behavior Offspring: few Learned behavior: important III. PRIMATE ADAPTATIONS A. Evolutionary Factors About how traits evolved as adaptations to environments 1) Arboreal Hypothesis Traditional explanation of primate adaptation Life in trees 2) Visual Predation Hypothesis Another explanation for primate characteristics 3) Flowering Plants Another explanation B. Geographical Distribution and Habitats Tropical and subtropical most primates 1) New World Mexico, Central, South America 2) Old World Africa, Asia (not Europe) C. Diet and Teeth Dental formula layout teeth 1) Old World Anthropoids two premolars 2) New World Anthropoids three premolars D. Locomotion Terrestrial and arboreal Quadrupedal mostly Brachiation Prehensile tail Knuckle walking IV. PRIMATE CLASSIFICATION A. Primate Order Order Primates within class Mammalia Diverse 230 species B. Suborders 1) Strepsirhini Lemurs, lorises 2) Haplorhini Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans Taxonomy of Primates 1) Traditional basis- physical similarities 2) Recent genetic basis V. SURVEY OF LIVING PRIMATES A. Lemurs and Lorises Suborder strepsirhini Rhinarium moist (wet nose) 1) Lemurs Madagascar 2) Lorises Southeast Asia and Africa B. Tarsiers Islands Southeast Asia Nocturnal insectivores Some anthropoid features C. Anthropoids: Monkeys, Apes, and Humans Anthropoids Monkey, apes, and humans Monkeys 85 % of primates CC. Monkeys Two groups New World and Old World 1) New World Monkeys Forest of Mexico, Central and South America Arboreal - live in trees 2) Old World Monkeys 1) Cercopithecines Generalized omnivorous diet 2) Colobines Leaf-eating monkeys D. Hominoids: Apes and Humans Hominoid Apes Small (Lesser Apes) Large (Great Apes) Africa and Asia 1) Gibbons and Siamangs Southeast Asia Small-bodied Brachiation arm over arm locomotion 2) Orangutans Large-bodied Indonesia (Borneo and Sumatra) Frugivorous fruit eaters 3) Gorillas Largest hominoid (ape) Marked sexual dimorphism Knuckle walking (quadrupedal) Forested areas equatorial Africa Gorillas continued Four sub-species Vegetarian Not ferocious 4) Chimpanzees Equatorial Africa Knuckle-walking mainly Chimpanzees continued Variety of foods Group hunting Large communities Bonded males core 5) Bonobos Slightly smaller than chimpanzees Male-female bonding Famous sexual behavior 6) Humans Homo sapiens Hominin tribe new taxonomy term a) Human Characteristics Shared...
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Exam2%20Notes%20Version%20A%20Prelim%20Review - Combined...

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