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Unformatted text preview: 1.4 The Matrix Equation Ax b
Linear combinations can be viewed as a matrixvector
multiplication.
Definition
If A is an m n matrix, with columns a 1 , a 2 , , a n , and if x is in
R n , then the product of A and x, denoted by Ax, is the linear
combination of the columns of A using the corresponding
entries in x as weights. I.e.,
x1
Ax x2 a1 a2 an x1 a1 x2 a2 xnan xn
EXAMPLE:
1 4 3 2 0 5 7
6 7
21
0 1
7 4
6 3
0 12
30 5 24
2 31
9
30 1 EXAMPLE: Write down the system of equations corresponding
to the augmented matrix below and then express the system of
equations in vector form and finally in the form Ax b where b
is a 3 1 vector.
234 9
310 2 Solution: Corresponding system of equations (fillin) Vector Equation:
2
3 3
1 4
0 9
2 . Matrix equation (fillin): 2 Three equivalent ways of viewing a linear system:
1. as a system of linear equations;
2. as a vector equation x 1 a 1 x 2 a 2 x n a n b; or
3. as a matrix equation Ax b.
THEOREM 3
If A is a m n matrix, with columns a 1 ,
R m , then the matrix equation
Ax b , a n , and if b is in has the same solution set as the vector equation
x1a1 x2a2 xnan b
which, in turn, has the same solution set as the system of
linear equations whose augmented matrix is
a1 a2 an b . Useful Fact:
The equation Ax b has a solution if and only if b is a
__________ ________________ of the columns of A. 3 1 5 3 11 14 2 EXAMPLE: Let A 4
8 b1 10 and b b2 . b3 Is the equation Ax b consistent for all b?
Solution: Augmented matrix corresponding to Ax b:
1 4 5 b1 3 11 14 b 2 2 8 10 b3 145
b1 011 3b 1 b 2 000 2b 1 b 3 Ax b is _______ consistent for all b since some choices of b
make 2b 1 b 3 nonzero. 4 1 5 3 11 14 2 A 4
8 10 a1 a2 a3 The equation Ax b is consistent if
2b 1 b 3 0.
(equation of a plane in R 3 )
x 1 a 1 x 2 a 3 x 3 a 3 b if and only if b 3 2b 1 0. b3 b2
b1 Columns of A span a plane
in R 3 through 0
5 Instead, if any b in R 3 (not just those lying on a particular line or
in a plane) can be expressed as a linear combination of the
columns of A, then we say that the columns of A span R 3 .
Definition
We say that the columns of A span
a1 a2 ap
R m if every vector b in R m is a linear combination of
a1, , ap (i.e. Span a 1 , , a p R m ). THEOREM 4
Let A be an m n matrix. Then the following statements are
logically equivalent:
a. For each b in R m , the equation Ax b has a solution.
b. Each b in R m is a linear combination of the columns of A.
c. The columns of A span R m .
d. A has a pivot position in every row. 6 Proof (outline): Statements (a), (b) and (c) are logically
equivalent.
To complete the proof, we need to show that (a) is true when (d)
is true and (a) is false when (d) is false.
Suppose (d) is _____________. Then rowreduce the
augmented matrix A b
:
A b ßß U d
and each row of U has a pivot position and so there is no pivot in
the last column of U d .
So (a) is _____________.
Now suppose (d) is _____________. Then the last row of
U d contains all zeros.
Suppose d is a vector with a 1 as the last entry. Then U d
represents an inconsistent system.
Row operations are reversible: U d ßß A b Í A b is inconsistent also. So (a) is ____________. 7 12
EXAMPLE: Let A 34 b1
and b b2 . Is the 56
b3
equation Ax b consistent for all possible b?
Solution: A has only _____ columns and therefore has
at most _____ pivots. Since A does not have a pivot in every _______, Ax b
is ________ ___________________ for all possible b,
according to Theorem 4. 8 123
EXAMPLE: Do the columns of A 246 span R 3 ? 039
Solution:
123
246 039
(no pivot in row 2) By Theorem 4, the columns of A
______________________________________________. Another method for computing Ax
Read Example 4 on page 44 through Example 5 on page 45
to learn this rule for computing the product Ax.
Theorem 5
If A is an m n matrix, u and v are vectors in R n , and c is a
scalar, then:
a. A u v Au Av;
b. A cu cAu.
9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course EE 101 taught by Professor Munk during the Spring '12 term at Alaska Anch.
 Spring '12
 MUNK

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