Chapter_23_Intro_to_Evolution - CHAPTER 23 AN INTRODUCTION...

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1 CHAPTER 23 AN INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION
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2 Biological evolution A heritable change in one or more characteristics of a population of a species across many generations Viewed on a small scale relating to changes in a single gene in a population over time Viewed on a larger scale relating to formation of new species or groups of species
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3 Species Group of related organisms that share a distinctive form Among species that reproduce sexually, members of the same species are capable of interbreeding to produce viable and fertile offsprings
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4 Empirical thought Relies on observation to form an idea or hypothesis, rather than trying to understand life from a non-physical or spiritual point of view
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5 Mid- to late-1600s, John Ray was the first to carry out a thorough study of the natural world Developed an early classification system Modern species concept Extended by Carolus Linnaeus Neither proposed that evolutionary change promotes the formation of new species
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6 Late 1700s, small number of European scientists suggest life forms are not fixed George Buffon says life forms change over time Jean-Baptiste Lamarck realized that some animals remain the same while others change Believed living things evolved upward toward human "perfection" Inheritance of acquired characteristics Giraffe neck example
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7 Charles Darwin British naturalist born in 1809 Theory shaped by several different fields of study Geology Economics Voyage of the Beagle
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8 Uniformitarism hypothesis from geology Slow geological processes lead to substantial change Earth was much older than 6,000 years Thomas Malthus, an economist, says that only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce
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9 Beagle (1831-1836) Darwin’s ideas were most influenced by his own observations Struck by distinctive traits of island species that provided them ways to better exploit their native environment Galapagos Island finches Saw similarities in species yet noted that differences that provided them with specialized feeding strategies We now know that all the finches evolved
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10 Fig. 23.1
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11 Table 23.1
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12 Formulated theory of evolution by mid- 1840s Spent several additional years studying barnacles 1856, began writing his book 1858, AlrredWallace sends Darwin an unpublished manuscript proposing many of the same ideas
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